What were the principles and the works taken up by Fascist government of Italy

Ans. Principles and the works taken up by Fascist government of Italy:-


The word “fascism” is derived from the Roman word “Fascio”, which means a ‘bundle of rods’. The fascists of Italy wore black shirts as a uniform and drilled themselves in the military companies and were highly patriotic.

Principles of Fascism:-

1. Fascism was opposed to democracy, socialism and liberalism.

2. It opposed individualism and placed the interests of the country above all other interests. It deprived capitalists of all their wealth and on the other hand they also prohibited the labourers to go on strike.

3. It believed that single party only was useful for the country and also believed in placing all the powers in the hands of a single dictator.

4. They believed that their race was the most superior race in the world.

5. They did not have any belief in peace. They advocated that “war is to a Nation what maternity is to woman”.

Work of Fascist Government:-

1. Mussolini’s Fascist Government improved country’s economy, checked the devaluation of the currency and made military training compulsory.

2. All the old conflicts with the pope were ended by making a pact with him.

3. A dynamic foreign policy was pursued.

4. He increased Italy’s control over Mediterranean sea.

5. He captured Abyssinia, violating the principles of League of Nations.

6. He undertook imperialist expansion.

7. He acquired Fiume from Yugoslavia and established colonies in East Africa and Libya.

Account for Nazism in Germany and rise of Hitler

Ans. 1. Adolf Hitler was born in Austria in 1889 in a middle class family. He got attracted to the teachings of a Philosopher ‘Nietzche’ and got attracted towards Nationalist feelings.

2. He joined German army and participated in the First World War For his services in the war he got a medal ‘Iron Cross’.

3. After the World War-I, he joined the worker’s party which consisted of seven members. Later he changed the party name as ‘National Socialist Party’ or ‘ Nazi Party’.

4. He felt very much upset with the terms and conditions of the treaty of Versailles and formulated a radical programme.

5. He was an Anti-Jew and opposed to parliamentary system.

6. He was a great Orator and very good public speaker and criticized the policies and failures of the Weimar Republic.

7. He gave military training and he tried to capture power of Bavaria in 1923. But failed and was imprisoned.

8. During imprisonment he wrote the book ‘Mein Kamf’ which was published in 1926.

9. He had advocated in his book (Mein Kamf) the supremacy of the Nordic race and his fate and its destiny to rule the whole world.

10. His party improved its strength in Reich stage, the lower house of the German parliament. He got elected as the chancellor of Germany in 1933.

11. In 1934, on the death of Hindenburg, the president of Germany, Hitler combined in his person both the offices of President and Chancellor.

12. Later he was declared the sole leader of Germany and began a spectacular.

What factors led America into the World War – II

1. In the International front U.S.A. remained isolated. But Roosevelt realized that Hitlerism would be a menace not merely in Europe, but in the whole world.

2. America realized that her safety lay in strengthening England and believed that as long as Germany did not destroy England, she will not bother about U.S.A. But after she had been humbled, U.S.A. will be the next target.

3. When Germany actually attacked France, America decided to take defensive measures.

4. When Germany started air attack on England, U.S.A. extended full co- `1operation to England by giving all out assistance by land –lease bill.

5. Finally U.S.A. signed the Atlantic Charter joined the war on the side of the allies.

6. Thus, U.S.A. joined the war in defense of liberty and independence of friendly countries.

7. U.S.A. was also to face danger from Japan in her interests in Far East when Japan started the policy of aggression in Asia, U.S.A. suspended the supply of scrap Iron to Japan, and imposed embargoes on aviation oil and gas line interests of Japan.

8. Inspite of U.S. appeals for peace, the reply came in the form of shower of bombs on American base at Pearl Harbour.

9. This drew America to the Vertex of World War – II.

What were the economic changes made in Russian policies under Bolsheviks and how did Lenin solve the crisis

Ans. Economic policies made in Russia by Bolsheviks:-

1. After the October revolution in 1917, Bolsheviks formed a government, they adopted a economic changes but they did not yield the expected results.

1. The peasants refused to produce more than what they needed for surplus was collected by the Government.

2. The workers-owned factories and workshops also failed to make any mark.

3. There was a rapid fall in agricultural and industrial production.

4. A severe drought occurred in 1921. All this led to a sharp rise in prices.

5. The people of Russia began raising the slogan down with the soviet government.

Under these circumstances Lenin announced his new economic policy to solve the crisis.

Lenin’s new economic policies:-

1. Lenin’s new economic policies were a compromise between socialism and capitalism.

2. According to it the peasants were required to pay only a fixed tax instead of the state taking away the surplus Produce and peasants were also permitted t sell their produce in the open market.

3. Nationalism was confined only to big industries and private enterprise on small scale was allowed.

4. Profit sharing concessions were also allowed to foreign capitalists for large scale agricultural and engineering concerns.

Under the implementation of the new economic policy, the crisis was averted and revived the economic life in Russia.

What are the causes for the outbreak of World War – II

Ans. Causes for the World War – II:-

The chief causes for the outbreak of the World War – II were

1. The humiliating terms of the Treaty of Versailles,
2. Aggressive Nationalist aspiration
3. Ideological conflicts
4. Rising Imperialism
5. Military preparations
6. Failure of League of Nations and
7. The immediate cause being Hitler’s attack on Poland.

Humiliating Terms of the Treaty of Versailles:-

1. The Allies of the first World War had heaped a lot of humiliation on Germany by the terms of the treaty of Versailles.

2. She was cut into two parts by establishing a polish corridor. Her navy was completely destroyed and Army was reduced to an insignificant size.

3. She was to pay reparations which were beyond her capacity to pay.

4. She was crippled both economically and militarily.

2. Aggressive Nationalist Aspirations:-

1. The harsh terms imposed by the treaty of Versailles had led to the growth of strong and aggressive nationalism in those countries.

2. Mussolini of Italy, Hitler of Germany, Stalin in Russia and Franco of Spain had risked their nations towards attainment of supremacy in the world.

3. Ideological Conflicts:-

1. After the World War – I, there arose an ideological conflict among democratic and dictatorial nations.

2. Germany, Italy, Spain and Japan represented the dictatorial ideologies.

3. On the other hand, U.S.A., Britain and France represented democratic ideology.

4. Besides this, the communist government was another totalitarian force which threatened democracy and individual freedom.

5. All these forces had clashed with one another resulting in the World War – II.

4. Rising Imperialism:-

1. In order to increase the prestige of their national spirit and racial superiority, Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy entered into imperialist expansion.

2. Japan had also entered into imperialist expansion.

3. These imperialist clashes brought about the World War – II.

5. Military Preparation:-

1. In order to take revenge of the humiliation meted out in the Versailles Treaty, Germany began to build her military.

2. Compulsory military training was introduced by Germany on its people.

3. In order to save themselves from the future danger from Germany every other country started improving military strength.

4. Thus it resulted in a race for piling up of war material in all European Nations.

6. Failure of League of Nations:-

League of Nations owing to its own limitations could not succeed in checking the aggressive designs of several countries and it miserably failed to restrict the race for Arms. It remained a spectator to the developments.

7. Immediate cause of the war:-

1. Hitler’s attack on Poland was the immediate cause for the outbreak of the war.

2. When Hitler came to power, he demanded the annexation of Danzig to Germany, on the ground that it was habituated by the Germans. He also demanded the closure of Polish Corridor.

3. Poland refused the accepts the demands of Hitler on the strength of French support.

4. On this refusal, Hitler attacked Poland on 1st September, 1939. For this move France and England declared war on Hitler.

5. Thus the Second World War began.

What were the political and economic consequences of the World War – II

Ans. Political Consequences of the World war-II :-

1. The war ended Britain’s leadership of the World.

2. It was now taken over by America and Russia.

3. European supremacy over Asia was lost several countries including Burma, Ceylon, Egypt and Malaya was granted freedom after the war, with the withdrawal of British sovereignty over them.

4. France, Portugal and Holland also lost their rich colonies in Asia.

5. War accelerated scientific progress in all spheres of human life.

6. The Armed supremacy of America and Russia once again brought the world to be divided into opposite power blocks, one dominated by capitalist America and the other by the Communist Russia.
Economic Consequences:-

1. The war resulted in an enormous loss of men and material.

2. The loss could not be estimated exactly even by the experts in Mathematics, Economics and by Statisticians.

3. Britain alone spent about two thousand crores.

4. Russia had drained one fourth of her entire national wealth.

5. The loss occurred in Poland, France and Germany could not be computed.

6. About one and a half crores of people were killed on both sides.

7. One crore of people were injured and another one crore were killed in Air-raids and naval operations.

What were the results of the Second world war
The results of the Second world war
1. The war ended with the Victory of Allied powers on Axis power. Nations such as Japan and Germany totally got ruined. Germany divided into two states.
2. The destruction causes by the world war-II, necessitated all the nations of the world to establish peace in the world. This results in the birth of United Nations Organization.
3. Though England and France got Victory in the war, Suffered lot of economic losses.
4. Under the economic problems and political pressure at home European countries could no longer control their colonies effectively.
5. This paved the way for declaring independence to the colonies.
6. The second world war also, roused the vigor of Nationalism in countries of Africa , Asia and gave stiff resistance to their colonial masters.

Give a brief sketch of Mussolini

1. Mussolini was born in 1883. He was a son of a blacksmith with socialist leanings. Mussolini, in his young age pursued various careers.

2. He taught in an elementary school, worked as a mason, took to smithy, and took to cultivations also.

3. He started his political career as a socialist agitator and was exiled to Switzerland.

4. During the First World War he joined the army and got wounded in 1917. He came back and worked for the newspaper II Papalo ‘d’ Italia which he started.

5. He established the fascist party. And all the local governments in Italy had come under the control of the Fascists by 1922.

6. Industrialists and landlords provided funds to the Fascists, for they were opposed to socialists on behalf of the capitalists.

7. Mussolini held a National Fascist Congress at Naples in October 1922. About 50,000 Black-shirts have assembled there.

8. Feared of this move, the liberal government resigned on 27th October, 1922. King Victor Emmanuel III invited Mussolini to form the government.

9. Mussolini was appointed as the prime minister of Italy.

10. Finally he was killed by his own people on 2nd April, 1945 and with his death the Fascism came to an end in Italy.

2. Rise of Hitler to power:-

1. Adolf Hitler was born in Austria in 1889 in a middle class family. He got attracted to the teachings of philosopher ‘Nietzche’ and got attracted towards nationalist feelings.

2. He joined German army and participated in the First World War. For his service in the war he got a medal ‘Iron Cross’.

3. After the world war – I, he joined the worker’s party which consisted of seven members. Later he changed party name as ‘National Socialist Party’ or ‘Nazi Party’.

4. He was an Anti-Jew and opposed to parliamentary system.

5. He gave military training and he tried to capture power of Bavaria in 1923. But failed and was imprisoned.

6. During imprisonment he wrote the book ‘Mein Kamf’ which was published in 1926.

7. His party improved its strength in Reich stage, the lower house of the German parliament. He got elected as the Chancellor of Germany in 1933.

8. In 1934, on the death of Hindenburg, the president of Germany Hitler combined in his person both the offices of president and chancellor.

9. Later he was declared as the sole leader of Germany and began a spectacular career which created terror all over Europe.

10. In 1945, with the destruction of Berlin by allied forces, Hitler committed suicide.

3. Foreign Policy of Russia under Stalin.

1. Stalin who succeeded Lenin in 1924 wanted to develop Russia as a great power.

2. But in foreign policy, Russia had to face many problems, because of its adaptation of a rough attitude towards the other nations.

Russia declared the following as the principles of her foreign policy:-

1. That it stands for peace in strengthening business relations with all countries, as long as other countries make no attempt to trespass on Russian interests.

2. Russia declared that it offers its support to the Nations which were the victims of aggressions and were fighting for their independence.

3. Russia also declared that they were ready to give two blows if any country undertakes aggression on Russia.
4. Mustafa Kemal Pasha

1. Mustafa Kemal Pasha was born at Solonika in 1880 to Albanian parents. He took up soldier’s life at an early age.

2. For his proficiency in Mathematics he obtained the name kemal which means perfection. Later, he developed keen interest in the study of revolutionary literature.

3. He joined the party of Young Turks and he exhibited his abilities by taking part in the country’s wars against Italy and Balkan wars of 1912-13.

4. During the world war – I his successful repulse of British attack on Gallipoli in 1915, brought him reputation as an able military commander.

5. He set up a Nationalist party People’s party with a motto- ‘Turkey for the Turks’.

6. When the party refused to accept the severs treaty the allied powers ignored the pact and the British army marched into Constantinople and proclaimed Marshal Law.

7. There upon in 1920, Kemal summoned a National Assembly at Anakara and proclaimed it as the sole representative of the Turkish Nation.

8. The assembly elected Kemal to be its president and made him the commander-in-chief of the National Army.

9. Kemal’s first act was that he cleared the country of foreign troops. He compelled the Italian troops to quit Southern Anatolia and expelled the foreign troops from Silicia.

10. Kemal’s resounding victories compelled the allied powers to revise the treaty of Sevres.

11. When he died in 1938, he left a powerful Turkey behind him, which remained neutral in the Second World War.

5. Causes for the failure of League of Nations.

Ans. Failures of the league:-

There were a number of causes for the failure of the league.

1. The big powers of the world did not join the league. Some joined late and some who joined the league resigned their membership from the league.

2. America whose president was the architect of the league did not join the league. Germany did not join till 1926. Russia joined late in 1934. Once again Germany in 1933 and Russia in 1939, withdrew their membership from the league.

3. Italy, Germany and Japan though were members of the league did not respect the principles laid down by the league.

4. While creating the new states after the First World War, the Versailles treaty, did not take the Nationalist interests.

5. In the newly created states such as Poland, Yugoslavakia, Czechoslovakia, the minorities with in the newly created states were not given freedom.

6. The league did not have the armed forces of its own. At the most it could ask its members to apply economic sanctions on the aggressor, even these Economic Sanctions were doubtful in nature.

7. Another reason that contributed to the failure of the league was the rise of dictatorships and totalitarian regimes in some important countries, such as Germany, Italy and Russia.

8. When the big power, inflated by aggressive nationalism went for a race for piling up of arms, the league failed to stop their race and thus paved the way for another world war.

6. Spanish Civil War.

Ans. Civil War:-

1. In Spain, a republican government was set up in 1931, but it drifted progressively towards communism.

2. In opposition to this communist leaning, a revolt broke out in Spain under the leadership of General Franco.

3. There arose a civil war between Fascist forces led by Franco and Socialist and communist forces.

4. The Communist forces in Spain received support from Moscow.

5. Hitler and Mussolini gave all their possible help to Franco against the socialist and communist forces.

6. Franco succeeded in the civil war. All republics under the control of communist sympathizers were crushed.

7. In this civil war, Spain was destroyed by Italian and German air forces.

8. England and France remained neutral.

9. The Spanish civil war which brought about the clash among different big powers of the world was commented as “a dress rehearsal for a greater drama soon to be played on an ampler stage”.

7. Marshall Plan

1. In1947, George Marshall, the secretary of U.S.A. expressed that unless the world recovered economically, political stability and World peace could not be achieved.

2. For this he announced American co-operation and help and advised the Europeans to take initiatives in this regard.

3. On the path shown by Marshall, England and France took initiative and invited Russia for talks.

4. England and France invited about 22 European Nations to assemble at Paris in July 1947.

5. Russia restrained all the communist government of Europe not to attend this European conference.

6. Inspite of all these hurdles put up by Russia, European Nations met in Paris and planned various programmes and organizations for the Economic reconstruction of Europe.

7. The chief among these organizations were
1. The organization for European Economic Cooperation.
2. European Economic Community and
3. European Free Trade Association.

8. Thus the proposals of Marshall plan began working to achieve the economic recovery of Europe.

9. It also helped European Nations to survive with their independence.


1. Apartheid in South Africa:-

1. The South Africa white government followed a policy of apartheid.

2. Apartheid implied complete segregation, socially and politically of the whites and the non-whites.

3. The South African government passed a group areas act in 1950, amended and improved in 1952 and 1956.

4. The purpose of this act is to divide the people into three categories were whites natives and coloured people and blacks.

5. The group areas Act was against the non-whites. So that people were started Anti – Apartheid movement.

6. Thousands of the agitators courted arrest and were sentenced to long terms of imprisonment.

7. Resolutions were passed by the U.N. condemning the policy of apartheid.

8. In 1961 the union of South Africa was forced of leave the common wealth on this issue.


1. South – West Africa was a German Colony before First World War and was conquered by the forces of South Africa in 1915. Under the treaty of Versailles the union of South Africa was taken power over South West Africa.

2. In 1974 the Security Council demanded the union of South Africa to give up her control over Namibia.

3. In 1986 South-West Africa was renamed as Namibia by the United Nations.

4. The Nationalist of Namibia formed a military Organization (SWAPO) which insisted on the with drawal of South African government from Namibia.

5. The U.N.O. apart from asking the South African Government to leave Namibia created a special U.N. Council for Namibia.

6. The U.N’s De – colonization Committee declared its support to SWAPO IN 1976.

3. Ian Smith:-

1. South Rhodesia a British colony. It was ruled by a white minority government led by Ian Smith and declared its independence independently.

2. The British Government considering this act as a serious challenge to the British authority, declared their independence as illegal.

3. U.N. passed economic sanctions against Rhodesia. In 1968, the Security Council imposed a military sanction on South Rhodesia. Inspite of these efforts made by England, and the U.N. the white minority role of Ian Smith in South Rhodesia continued.

4. A compromise was arrived between Ian Smith and England on 24th September, 1976 after a strong pressure on South Rhodesia.

5. Ian Smith announced for passing the government of South Rhodesia from white minority to the black majority on gradual stages within two years from 1976.

4. Sun-Yet-Sen:-

1. In China, there was a Monarchial regime until 1912.

2. There was a lot of intellectual movement in China, attempting at introducing reforms.

3. One such reform attempt was made by Sun-yet-sen.

4. Sun-Yet-Sen succeeded in turning the Anti-Manchu agitation into a republican movement.

5. Chinese people under Sun-Yet-Sen took up arms against Manchus and captured Nanking and formed there a provincial Republic.

6. Sun-Yet-Sen became its president

5. Mao-Tse-Tung:-

1. Around 1920’s Chinese communist party also gained strength in China. For some time the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) and Koumintang (KMT), worked together in the cause of National Liberation struggle against foreigners and against the warlords.

2. This friendly relation remained as long as Sun-Yet-Sen was alive and led the K.M.T.

3. But the relationship between K.M.T. and C.C.P. got strained, with the rise of Chiang-Kai-Sheik as the leader of K.M.T after Sun-Yet-Sen’s death.

4. Ideological warfare in China developed very brisk with pouring in arms for Chiang-Kai-Sheik from U.S.A. against the communists. But finally communists overthrew Chiang-Kai-Sheik. The victorious communists proclaimed the people’s Republic of China on 1st October, 1949, with Mao-Tse-Tung as the chairman and Chou-En-Lai as prime minister.

6. Sukarno:-

1. During the World War – II, the Indonesians took the help of Japan to drive away the Dutch.

2. But the Japanese conquered it in a short time, formed the government with the collaboration of natives under the leadership of Sukarno.

3. After Japan’s defeat in the World War – II, Indonesia declared independence and established a Republic on August 17th, 1945.But once again Dutch tried to regain their Control over Indonesia.

4. The issue was brought to the U.N.O. Dutch did not yield. Sukarno and other nationalists were arrested.

5. Under heavy pressure, Dutch yielded. Indonesia was declared independence.

6. Sukarno was elected as the President of Indonesia in 1950 with the help of the Indonesian Nationalist Party which he established.


Write two principles of fascism

1. Fascism was opposed to democracy, socialism and liberalism.

2. It opposed individualism and placed the interests of the country above interests of the individuals.

What is apartheid

Apartheid is the racial discrimination shown by the whites against the blacks in South Africa.
Apartheid means policy of racial discrimination. It implies complete segregation of the whites and non-whites socially and politically.

From which word is ‘fascism’ derived? What is its meaning

The word ‘fascism’ is derived from the Roman word ‘fascio’ which means ‘a bundle of rods’.

Write the full form of SWAPO.

1. SWAPO was established by the Nationalist of Namibia.
2. The full form of SWAPO is South West African People Organization.

Write in two sentences, how apartheid in South Africa influenced on other countries

1. In South Africa, the white government followed the policies of apartheid even after the war.

2. A movement against apartheid was launched.

3. There was an intervention of the common wealth of countries. Later South Africa left the common wealth in 1961.

4. The idea of white man’s racial superiority was denounced by the educated and enlightened people of the colonies.

6. Meiji restoration:-

In Japan the federal government was abolished and the emperor was restored to power. This is called Meiji restoration

Write the importance of the “Atlantic Charter”

America Joined the Second world war on the side of allied powers by Signing Atlantic Charter.

Fill in the blanks:-

1. “War is to a Nation What maternity is to Women” was the principle advocated by Mussolini.

2. The author of Mein Kamf was Hitler.

3. The Russo-Japanese war was fought from the conflict of interests in the region of Manchuria.

4. Through Land-Lease Bill, America agreed to give all-out assistance to England.

5. Robert Mugabe became the first president of Zimbabwe in 1980.

6. In 1949, people’s Republic of China emerged under the leadership of Mao-Tse-Tung.

7. ‘New deal’ Policy was introduced by the American President Roosevelt.

8. America joined in the Second World War on the side by Allies after signing on Atlantic Charter.

9. The founder of Koumintang party is Sun-Yet-Sen.

10. The first president of Indonesia was Sukarno.

11. Indonesia was the colony of Dutch.

12. The name of the newspaper edited by Mussolini was Ill Papalo ‘D’ Italia.

13. Indonesia joined the U.N.O. in the year 1950.

14. After the World War – II the non aligned countries formed into Third block.

15. Uniform of fascists Black shirts.

16. Planning in Russia was introduced by Stalin.

17. Chou-En-Lai belongs to China.

18. Presently North Rhodesia is called a Zambia.

19. Founder of the fascist party was Mussolini.

20. Founder of the Nazi party was Hitler.

21. The present name of South-West Africa is Namibia.

22. Marshall plan was an economic plan.

23. U.N.O. day is celebrated on October 24.

24. The lower house of German Parliament is Reich Stage.

25. Hitler was impressed by the Philosopher by name Nietztche.

26. For his services in World War – I, Hitler got a medal called Iron Cross.

27. The great depression occurred in the World in 1929-30.

28. U.S.A. extended full cooperation to England by Land-Lease Bill of 1941.

29. Kemal means perfection.

30. “Turkey for the Turks” motto was made by Mustafa Kemal Pasha.

31. Father of Turks was the title of Mustafa Kemal Pasha.

32. Spanish Civil War was described as “A dress rehearsal for a greater drama soon to be played on an Ampler stage”.

33. Hitler committed suicide in April, 1945

34. America dropped first nuclear bomb on Hiroshima on August 9th, 1945.

35. The Indonesian Nationalist party was founded by Sukarno.

36. Apartheid was followed in South Africa.

37. South Rhodesia is known as Zimbabwe.

38. Dan Pedro belonged to Brazil.

39. The Chino-Japanese war of 1894-95 ended with the Treaty of Shemonosheki.

40. Manchuria was called “The granary of the far East”.

41. Japan entered into Second World War in 1941 with an attack on pearl harbour of U.S.A.

42. Russia withdrew from the league in 1939.

43. Koumintang was followed by Sun-Yet-Sen.

44. Chou-En-Lai was the first Prime Minister of China

45. Ceylon became a dominion in 1948.

46. The White Government in South Africa followed the policy of Apartheid.

47. Simon Boliver brought victory to Latin America.

48. Dan Pedro won independence to Brazil.

49. Pedro-II abolished slavery in Brazil.

50. Open door policy was introduced by America.

51. In Mexico, independence revolution was done by Father Hidalgo, Father Morilees.

52. Japan invaded Manchuria in 1931.

53. In Chile and Peru liberation struggle movement were led by Jone-D-San-Martin.

54. Brazil was the colony of Portugal.

55. Latin America consists with Mexico, middle American states and South America.

56. Expand KMT Koumintang, CCP Chinese Communist Party.

57. After the World War – I Turkey was made to sign a treaty was called The Treaty of Severs.

58. Latin America had 26 republics in it.

59. Present Prime Minister of Zimbabwe is Mogan Sangarai .

60. Present President of Zimbabwe is Robert Mugabe.

61. Treaty of Sevres belongs to Turkey.

Match the following:-

1. Atlantic Charter [e] a. America

2. Pan Asianism [c] b. Sun-Yet-Sen

3. Open Door Policy [a] c. Japan

4. Koumintang party [b] d. Mexican liberation

5. Father Hidalgo [d] e. America joined the war on
And Mariloon the side of allies.