THE WORLD AFTER WORLD WAR – II
Explain how the military blocks were formed after world war – II
1. The World War – II had changed completely the political composition not only of Europe but also of the whole world.
2. Europe in particular and the world in general witnessed a reorientation of the balance of power
3. Russia and U.S.A. emerged as the leading powers of the world. The entire world was divided by ideological differences leading to a cold war.
4. But in course of time, the growth of nationalist spirit had resulted in the independence of many African and Asian nations which formed a third bloc of non-aligned nations.
5. Russia felt that under the leadership of U.S.A. the capitalist west might attack communism.
6. She therefore proceeded to form a soviet bloc in the Eastern Europe.
7. Spread of Communism in Europe and formation of the bloc by Soviet Union, led the western states to oppose the spread of communism in the world. They formed into another military power bloc.
8. Thus the world was divided into two rival power blocks, the western power bloc under the leadership of U.S.A. and the Eastern power bloc under the leadership of U.S.S.R.
9. The two rival systems of alliances gave birth to a war of tension and this tension had been termed as ‘Cold War’.
Discuss the role of Non-alignment movement
1. Non alignment is the characteristic feature of Indian Foreign Policy.
2. This means that India is not prepared to join either the Anglo-American bloc or the soviet bloc.
3. The contention is that she can serve the cause of world peace better if she retains the independence of judgement.
4. The attitude of India is determined by a balancing of three considerations. Whether it is on the side of justice or truth, whether it would further the cause of universal peace or freedom and whether it is favourable to India in National Interest.
5. This non-alignment policy was not the one of negative neutrality.
6. It is a positive policy of helping those forces which India considers to be right and disapproving of those which India considers to be wrong.
7. While doing so, India has to keep herself away from alignments of power which normally leads to wars.
8. The foreign policy of India is aimed at primarily preventing world conflict and to retain position for India from which she can stop the war.
9. India does not join the power blocs so that she is in a position to throw her weight in the interests of peace when time requires.
10. India’s policy of non-alignment movement has been endorsed by a number of newly emerged Afro-Asian and European countries.
11. These countries exerted some kind of influence on two power blocs. and formed third bloc in U.N.
What were the problems of Disarmament movements
1. After the World War – II the world got divided into power blocs and tension.
2. Prevailed amongst the major powers of the world due to the fear of another world war.
3. Under this tense situation the countries in the world showed rush for piling up of arms.
4. The charter of U.N. asked the Security Council to formulate plans for the establishment of a system for regulation of armaments.
5. Atomic Energy commission was asked to made proposals for the control of atomic energy for peaceful purposes and also to suggest effective safeguards, against violation and evasions.
6. In November1951, President Truman submitted a proposal to the U.N. for bringing about world disarmament including elimination of atom bombs.
7. In 1953, in an address to General Assembly president Eisenhower gave a new plan for disarmament by way of exchanging of blue prints and reciprocal aerial service.
8. In August 1957, Dulles, the American secretary of state submitted to a special sub-committee of U.N. disarmament commission a proposal for aerial and ground inspection against surprise attack.
9. United States, Britain and U.S.S.R. signed a partial Nuclear Test Ban in Moscow in 1963.
10. On 12th June 1968, the General Assembly of U.N.O. passed a revolution by which it recommended the adoption of the nuclear non-proliferation treaty.
11. However, the nuclear powers were allowed to transfer their nuclear know-how to Non-nuclear powers for peaceful use.
4. Access the role of U.N.O. in preserving world peace.
1. The United Nations Organization from its inception in 1945 has played a very positive role in avoiding quarrels and near wars and thus helped in preserving peace
2. U.N.O. succeeded in getting independence to Indonesia from the Dutch.
3. It solved the dispute in Palestine between Arabs and Jews and created separate state of Israel for Jews.
4. It stopped the Aggression of North Korea over South Korea by military action.
5. It succeeded in averting war between England and Egypt over Suez canal crisis.
6. When Pakistan resorted to aggression over Kashmir, it intervened and tried to avert the war between India and Pakistan
7. It helped in Cyprus to avert conflict between Greeks and Turks.
8. It also helped about 60 nations in getting liberated form imperialist controls.
9. The security council of U.N. took up the issue and the Soviet Union was made to withdraw the troops from Iran.
10. On the similar complaints made by Syria and Lebanon, the U.N. interfered and secured the withdrawal of British and French troops from these states.
5. Examine the features of the cold war
1. Though Soviet Union and U.S.A. cooperated with each other during the World War – II, there did not develop a spirit of real co-operation.
2. Towards the end of the war, Soviet Union and western powers took opposite stands.
3. The Western powers were agitated over Russian that occupations her’s of considerable portion in the far East.
4. There also existed ideological differences between Soviet Union and western democracies.
5. The western powers considered soviet union a greater enemy than Hitler and Mussolini
6. Even before the end of World War II, Russia imposed communist regimes in the East European countries of Poland, Bulgaria, Rumania, Hungary and Yugoslavia.
7. Soviet union then turned her attention towards western Europe.
8. These moves of Soviet union were viewed by the western powers with great concern.
9. United States took up the responsibility of checking communism. It proposed Truman Doctrine and Marshall plan to check the increase of communist influence.
10. These moves and counter-moves constituted the beginning of cold war.
1. Marshall plan:-
1. To restrict the growth of communism in Europe, America initiated a programme of Economic reconstruction of Europe.
2. This programme taken up by America is called “Marshall plan”. It is named after Marshall, the secretary of state for America.
3. Marshall plan was an extension of Truman Doctrine. It dealt with Europe in general and not with any particular state. It was essentially an Economic plan.
4. It was directed to avert the economic crisis resulting out of World War – II.
5. It also underlined the American determination to fight against communism.
6. U.S.S.R opposed this plan and complained that U.S through this plan is aiming at creating economic empire by taking advantage of the conditions in Europe.
2. Bandung Conference:-
1. The Bandung conference is also called Asian African conference in which representatives form 29 Asian and African countries participated.
2. The conference discussed the following points.
i. To bring economic cooperation among the countries.
ii. Nuclear Energy should be used for peaceful purposes.
iii. It raised its voice against colonial power.
iv. It declared full support to the principle of self determination of people and Nation.
3. This meeting was held between 18th April and 24th April in 1955 at Bandung in Indonesia.
4. The importance of Bandung conference lies in the fact that this was the first time in History that the independent countries of Asia and Africa met together for discussion.
3. Apartheid in South Africa
1. The South African white government followed a policy called Apartheid.
2. It implies complete segregation, socially and politically of the whites and non-whites
3. The 3.6 lakh Indian living in South Africa were subjected to Apartheid.
4. The Indian Government brought this question before the General Assembly in 1956.
5. In 1962, General Assembly passed a resolution for imposing an economic sanction and breaking diplomatic relations with South Africa
6. In 1966, General Assembly condemned apartheid as crime against humanity.
7. Later Security council called for an arms embargo against South Africa. However, United Nations succeeded to solve the problem very recently.
4. Truman Doctrine:-
1. Truman Doctrine was a proposal to send military and economic aid to Greece and Turkey.
2. It was a policy of American support to free people who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressure.
3. The communist forces held considerable influence over Greeks. The situation was in a great danger of even losing their independence.
4. In 1946, the Greek government complained to the Security Council against the violation of territorial integrity by her neighbors.
5. In 1947, the U.S A sent an economic mission to Greece to find out as to what could be done for that country to save her from collapse.
6. The situation in Turkey was also alarming
7. Turkish government asked United States to help her against soviet union.
8. In May 1947, American congress authorized aid to Greece and Turkey.
9. The Guerrillas were completely eliminated from Greece. Peace was restored, Railways and Bridges were restored and Traffic on Roads became safe.
10. Thousands of new houses were built, Agricultural production surpassed pre-war level.
11. Thus in the case of Turkey also peace was restored and fresh elections were held.
5. F.D. Roosevelt:-
1. Roosevelt was the 32nd president of the U.S.A. (1933-45).
2. He was the first American to be elected for more than two terms of office.
3. The more noteworthy feature of Roosevelt’s presidency was his strong lead away from isolationalism.
4. His well known features are:-
a. His good neighbourly policy towards Latin America.
b. His new deal programme at home.
c. His lease land support for countries fighting against the Axis powers.
d. His leadership of America at war after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbour are all well-known.
5. He died a month before Germany’s unconditional surrender in 1945.
1. The full form of NATO is “North Atlantic Treaty Organization”.
2. The North Atlantic Treaty Organization was signed in Washington on 4th April, 1949 by the U.S., Canada, Belgium, Denmark, France, Iceland, Italy, Luxemburg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal and Britain, Greece and Turkey.
3. NATO was a defensive organization against the soviet bloc.
4. The members agreed to make peaceful settlements of all disputes among themselves for international peace, security and justice.
5. They agreed to encourage economic collaboration, to resort to arms singly or jointly against foreign aggression and to put up joint resistance till security council took necessary measures against the aggressor..
2. Maltov Plan:-
1. Maltov Plan was proposed by the Russian Foreign Minister, Maltov.
2. All the communist nations were the members of this plan.
3. They were:- Russia, Bulgaria, Poland, Romania, East Europe and Mongolia.
4. This plan was initiated as a counter move to the Marshall plan by Russia.
3. Cuban Crisis:-
1. Cuba is a small island of the East coast of America. It is one of the islands in West Indies
2. Fedel Costro formed communist Government in 1962. They made close relationship with U.S.S.R
3. U.S.S.R. came to the rescue of Cuba and established Missile base.. For this U.S.A. made a naval surrendered around Cuba.
4. This was considered as a serious thereat to the safety of the United Nations.
5. So that U.S.A. imposed economic sanctions and cut of all communications.
6. They were ready to fight but U.N.O. interfered and worked out compromise and solved this problem in 1962
1. Sukarno was a statesman of Indonesia.
2. He fought for the liberation of Indonesia from Dutch and later from Japanese control.
3. Sukarno was the founder of Indonesian Nationalist party in 1927.
4. Dr. Sukarno was arrested by the Dutch government in Indonesia in 1927.
5. When Japan invaded Indonesia in 1941, Sukarno headed the collaborationist government.
6. Later Sukarno was elected as the first president of Indonesia after its Independence.
1. Warsa Treaty:-
1. In opposition to the NATO organized by America, Warsa Treaty agreement for the East European communist countries was proposed by Russia in May 1955.
2. This was organized at Warsa, which all the communist countries of East Europe attended.
3. Countries like Albania, Russia, Bulgaria, Hungary, East Germany, Czechoslovakia, Romania and Poland have signed the agreement.
4. According to it, if any member country was invaded, all the members should collectively give resistance to the invader under a common military leadership.
What is meant by non-alignment policy
1. The countries of Africa and Asia which got independence recently formed themselves into a separate block which did not belong either to the Russian block or the American block. This is known as non-alignment.
2. Non-alignment was not the policy of negative neutrality. It was a positive policy of helping those forces which were considered to be right.
3. Expand the term NATO.
NATO means North Atlantic Treaty Organization.
What is Cold war
The cold war is an ideological war fair between Russia and America which divided the whole world into two power blocks.
What is known as third bloc
Newly independent Asian and African countries formed into a third bloc popularly known as non-aligned countries.
6. Palestine problem:-
1. Palestine was once under the British control. This area was inhabited by Jews and Arabs.
2. In 1947, the U.N. partitioned Palestine into the areas of Jews and Arabs.
3. The U.N. created a separate state of Israel for Jews but the border problem erupted between Israel and Palestine. This is yet unresolved.
What is Bandung Conference
In 1955, a conference of Asian and African countries was organized at Bandung. This conference served as an important landmark in the economic development through cooperation among countries of Asia and Africa.
Fill in the blanks:-
1. Warsa treaty was organized by Russia.
2. Jawaharlal Nehru was the architect of Non-alignment movement.
3. Palestine problem was a struggle between Arabs and Jews.
4. The Indonesian Islands of Java, Sumatra were the colonies of Dutch.
5. The supreme allied commander during the world war – II was Eisen hower.
6. Sukarno was a statesman of Indonesia.
7. Nasser was a Egyptian statesman and leader in the Arab world.
8. The Brussels treaty was concluded in the year 1948.
9. ‘New Deal’ policy was introduced by F.D. Roosevelt.
10. The President of Russia at present Dimithri Methvedev
11. Marshal Tito was a Yugoslavia Marshal and statesman.
12. Maltov plan was a counter move to the Marshall Plan.
13. Marshall Plan was an Economic Plan
14. The Russian Foreign Minister was Maltov.
15. An article entitled ‘a study of physical culture’ was written by Mao-Tse-Tung.
16. Truman Doctarine was the policy of American support to free people who were
resisting attempted subjugation by armed minority or by outside pressure.
17. NATO was signed on 4th April, 1949 in Washington.
18. Soviet union was disintegrated in 1991.
19. In 1934, Mao-Tse-Tung conducted a long march on 10,000 kms in China.
20. Nasser nationalized the Suez Canal Company.
21. Nikita Khrushchev was the first soviet ruler to visit us.
22. Jawaharlal Nehru was the author of Panchasheel agreement with China.
23. Mao’s Red Army was renamed as People’s Liberation Army.
24. Nikita Khrushchev removed Stalin’s dead body from Lenin’s side and got buried else where.
25. The present name of Farmosa is Taiwan.
26. Indonesian National Party was founded by Sukarno.
27. Eleanor was wife of Roosevelt served as chair person of United Nations human rights commission.
28. Truman doctrine was proposal to help Greece and Turkey countries.
Match the following:-
Group-A Group – B
1. Sukarno [c] a. Russia
2. Tito [d] b. China
3. Chou-En-Lai [b] c. Indonesia
4. Nikita Khrushchev [a] d. Yugoslavia
5. Nasseer [e] e. Egypt.