SOILS

SOILS

Describe the significance of soils for economic development of a region? (Or) How can you say that soil is an asset for Indian Agriculture

Significance of soils for economic development of a region:-

1. In a developing country like India, where agriculture is the predominant economic activity of the people, the soils play a significant role in determining man’s economic, social and cultural progress.

2. Great civilizations have almost invariably flourished on good soils, the alluvium in particular.

3. Now-a-days, when farming is a business , good soil is a part of the farmer’s stock-in-trade.

4. Thus, soils endowed with a proper combination of texture, salts and humus yield good results to farming community and in turn to the national economy.

5. In view of heavy population pressure on agricultural enterprise in our country, the rich variety of soils is an asset for Indian agriculture which permits great diversification of agricultural produce.

What are the characteristics of alluvial soil

Characteristics of Alluvial Soil:-

1. These soils are formed by river systems through deposition of fine grained sediments.

2. These soils are of two types; the older alluvium and the newer alluvium.

3. The older alluvium (Bhangar) is more clayey and darker colour.

4. The newer alluvium (Khadar) is generally sandy in texture and light coloured.

5. In general, alluvial soils are rich in lime and potash but deficient in Nitrogen and organic content.

6. Phosphorus is also deficient in some areas.

What are the prominent areas of alluvial soil cover in the country

Alluvial soil cover and distribution:-

1. Alluvial soils cover 23.4% of the country’s total land surface.

2. In the north these soils occur in the Indo Gangetic plains covering from Punjab to Assam.

3. In the peninsular plateau, they found in the coastal plains.

4. They are also found in river valleys of Narmada, Tapti, Mahanadi, Krishna, Godavari, Cauvery.

Describe the nature of black soil? What are the suitable crops to grow on black soils in India

Nature of Black Soil:-

1. Black soils have developed over Deccan Lavas, gneisses and granites under semi-arid conditions.

2. These soils are the tropical chernozems with vary in colour from deep black through light black to chestnut.

3. Their black colour is largely due to the fine iron content.

4. The texture of black soils is mostly clayey and are known for high moisture retentive capacity.

5. During hot weather period these soils develop deep cracks in the fields which helps in their aeration and absorption of Nitrogen from the atmosphere.

6. Chemically these soils are deficient in Nitrogen, Phosphoric acid and organic matter but rich in potash, lime, alluminium, calcium and magnesium carbonates.

Suitable Crops:-

1. Cotton is more suitable crop of black soils.

2. Oil seeds, millets, vegetables, fruits, sugarcane, tobacco are also widely grown.

3. Black soils are ideal for dry farming due to their moisture retentive capacity.

Explain the nature of red soil cover in the country

1. Red soils account for 29.08% of the total soil cover in the country.

2. These soils are widely distributed in Southern India, South-eastern Maharashtra, eastern parts of Madhya Pradesh, parts of Orissa and Southern Bihar.

What is Soil erosion? What are the agents of soil erosion

Soil erosion:-

1. Soil erosion means washing away of the fine and fertile topmost layer of the soil cover by the natural agents.

The agents of soil erosion

1.Over grazing of cattle.
2. Deforestation.
3. Following faulty agricultural practices.
4. Road constructions in hilly terrains.
5. Landslides.
6. Flash floods
7. Extensive gulling.
8. Adopting shifting cultivation.
9. Earthquakes and high velocity winds.

How do you establish that soil erosion in man-made disaster

Soil erosion is caused by human factors in the following ways.

1. Over-grazing, deforestation, faulty agricultural practices and road construction in hilly terrain led to the unprecedented devastation in the form of extensive gulling, landslides and flash floods.

2. The shifting cultivation (Jhumming) extensively practiced by the tribal population in the north-eastern India has led to alarming rates of soil erosion.

3. Through unprecedented activity of deforestation, the country has lost valuable forests extending over 25 million hectares between 1950 and 1980, which cause huge floods and great havoc to the croplands and reservoirs by silting.

What are the different forms of erosion and their occurrence in India

Soil erosion:-

Soil erosion means washing away of the fine and fertile topmost layer of the soil covered by the natural agents like running water and wind as well as the human and animal interference.

Different forms of Soil erosion:-

Soil erosion occurs in three ways. They are:-
1. Sheet erosion
2. Rill erosion
3. Gully erosion

1. Sheet erosion:-
1. During the rainy period, when the soil cover is directly exposed to torrential rainfall and flash floods, the thin mantle of top soil which is formed as a result of several centuries of natural weathering processes will be removed over large areas in the form of layer to layer which is called ‘Sheet erosion’.

2. Sheet erosion is common in the heavy rainfall areas of Siwaliks, Western Ghats, Eastern Ghats, Assam and north-eastern parts of peninsula.

2. Rill erosion:-

1. If the sheet erosion continues unchecked, numerous finger shaped grooves may develop which is called “Rill erosion”.

2. Rill erosion is prevalent in Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and in the semi-arid parts of Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil nadu.

3. Gully erosion:-

1. If the Rill erosion continues further, the rills may deepen and enlarge into ‘gullies’.

2. The highly eroded deep gullied lands covering an area of 4 million hectares concentrated over on the banks of the Yamuna, the chambal and the Mahi and the other rivers in Gujarat.

What do you understand by sheet erosion

Sheet erosion:-

1. During the rainy period, when the soil cover is directly exposed to torrential rainfall and flash floods, the thin cover/sheet of top soil which is formed as a result of several centuries of natural weathering processes will be removed over large areas in the form of layer to layer which is called ‘Sheet erosion’.

2. Sheet erosion is common in the heavy rainfall areas of Siwaliks, Western Ghats, Eastern Ghats, Assam and north-eastern parts of peninsula.

What are the important measures of soil conservation

Important measures of soil conservation:-

1. Soil conservation includes all such measures and practices which help in protecting and safeguarding the soil from erosion.

2. The following measures are to be adopted for the conservation of soil erosion

a. Contour bunding
b. Terracing (to make flat area on a slope)
c. Construction of bunds across gullies
d. Furrowing
e. Strip cropping
f. Leveling of uneven land
g. Raising of grass and other vegetation along the steep slopes.
h. Construction of check dams and diversion drains.
i. Afforestation
j. Controlled grazing etc.

 

What are the consequences of soil erosion

Desertification and heavy siltation of major reservoirs are the major consequences of soil erosion in the country.

What is meant by soil conservation

Soil conservation means technological measures and practices which help in protecting and safeguarding the soil from erosion.

What is the need for soil conservation programmes

1. There is an urgent need for intensification of soil conservation programmes in order to improve our agricultural economy and safeguard our ecosystems.

2. In this process, an awareness about the dangers of soil erosion should be created among the illiterate farmers.

3. They should safeguard their own soils by following the suggested measures instead of depending upon the help of the government.

Fill in the blanks:-

1. The older alluvium is called as Bhangar in Inda.

2. The newer alluvium is known as Khadar in India.

3. The alluvial soils are rich in lime and potash.

4. The tropical chernozems in India are called as Black soils.

5. Black soils are most clayey and moisture retentive.

6. Laterite soils are characterized by leaching away of Silica.

7. Immatured soils generally found in mountain region.

8. Red soils derived from the weathering of crystalline and metamorphic rocks.

9. Alluvial soils developed due to deposition of sediments.

10. The average annual removal of top soil per hectare in India through erosion process is 60.4 tonnes.

11. Gully type of soil erosion is most prevalent over chambal region.

12. Suitable crop of black soils is Cotton.

13. The Alluvial soil are very fertile.

14. The Red soils are without free carbonates.

15. Another name for shifting cultivation is Jhumming or tribal agriculture.

16. Alluvial soils are deficient in Nitrogen and Organic content.

17. Black soils are developed over deccan lavas.

18. Alluvial soils cover 23.4 percent of total land surface in the country.

19. Gully erosion is more prevalent in the banks Yamuna, Chambal and Mahi river basins.

Match the following:-

a. Contour bunding ( 5 ) 1. Wind erosion

b. Sand-dunes ( 1 ) 2. Khadar

c. Deccan Lava ( 4 ) 3. Rill erosion

d. Flood Plains ( 2 ) 4. Regur soil

e. Finger-shaped grooves ( 3 ) 5. Soil conservation