POPULATION

Explain the population growth in India after the Independence

1. The population growth has been relatively higher after the Independence of the country.

2. Population growth rate has exceeded 20% in each decade ever since 1961.

3. After Independence, the highest decadal growth rate 24.8 percent was registered in 1971 and it was followed by 24.7% in 1981.

4. In the last 40 years, the absolute numbers of population have increased from 36.1 crores in 1951 to 84.4 crores in 1991, showing a net increase of 48.3 crores.

5. The death rate was sharply declined from 27 to 8.9 per thousand between 1951 and 2001 with the further improvement of health and medical facilities.

6. Where as the birth rate fell very slowly from 40 to 24.8 per thousand during this period.

7. As a consequence there was a population explosion during the last four decades.

What are the main causes of the rapid population growth in India (or)
What are the reasons for population Explosion in India

Reasons for population Explosion in India:-

The main reasons responsible for population explosion are follows:-

1. Effective handling of famine, drought and flood situations through Five year plans by the development of irrigation and modernization of agriculture.

2. Effective control of dreadful epidemic through the advancement of medical technology and wide-spread circulation of health-care delivery system of all parts of the country and to all sections of people. Hence, the death rate was fallen very sharply.

3. The high birth rate could not be controlled like in the case of death-rate because of illiteracy, religious and social attitude of the people such as liking to have a son, preference given to large families and early marriages.

4. The family planning programme of the Government has not been very successful for effective control to birth-rate on par with that of the death-rate. As a result, the disparity between birth-rate and death-rate has widened.

5. Besides the primary economy like agriculture the development of secondary and tertiary economic sectors through plan periods like industrialization, urbanization, transport and communication, recreation, medical, banking etc. have all created more employment opportunities.

6. The spread of education, development of science and technology and effective as well as optimum utilization of all the available resource have given greater scope and prospects for sustainability.

What are the areas of high population growth during 1991-2001 and what are the reasons

1. During 1991-2001, the average rate of population growth in India was registered as 21.34% within the country.

2. There has been a significance spatial variation in the rate of population growth among the states.

3. The highest population growth rate was registered in Nagaland with 64.14%.

4. The important states which recorded the high and very high growth rates of population are Nagaland, Sikkim, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram and Jammu & Kashmir.

5. The union territories Dadra Nagar Haveli, Daman and Diu, Delhi, Chandigarh recorded high growth population.

6. The growth of population is higher due to control of wide spread diseases, increase of health care system and a short decline in death rate.

Which are the areas of low population growth during 1991-2001

1. Very low rate of population growth is recorded in Kerala, Tamil nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Goa, Tripura and Orissa.

2. Many of the big states in the country experienced a low to moderate population growth rate.

3. Broadly speaking, the proportionate growth rate has been relatively lower in most of the densely populated states and higher in the sparsely populated areas of the country.

Give a geographical account of the densely and sparsely populated areas in India

Density of population:-

The density of population means the number of persons available per sq.km of area. As per the 2001 census, the average density of population in the country was 324 persons per sq. km.

According to the average density of population, the stats and union territories of India can be grouped into the following divisions.

1. Areas of high density (Above 300 persons per Sq.km.) :-

1. Twelve states and six union territories come under this group.

2. They are West Bengal, Bihar, Kerala, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Punjab, Haryana, Goa, Assam, Jharkand, Maharashtra and Tripura.

3. Union Territories of Delhi, Chandigarh, Pondicherry, Lakshadweep, Daman and Diu and Dadra Nagar Haveli.

4. Many of these states with a highly density of population are located in the Great plains of the country and agriculture is the predominant economic activity.

2. Areas of Moderate Density (from 200 to 300 person per Sq.km.) :-

1. This group consists of four states. They are Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Gujarat and Orissa.

2. Most of these states are located in the peninsular plateau.

3. In these areas the east and west coastal plains draining with great river systems like the Godavari, the Krishna and the Mahanadi have been supporting more number of people.

3. Areas of Low density (less than 200 persons per Sq.km.) :-

1. This group consists of twelve states and one union territory.

2. They are Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram, Sikkim, Jammu & Kashmir, Meghalaya, Manipur, Himachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Chattisgarh, Uttaranchal, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh states and the union territory Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

3. Many of these states are located in the North-eastern India.

4. Here, the predominant coverage of mountain tracts with rugged terrain and forest, unfavourable climatic conditions with a heavy rainfall, low temperature, steep valleys with poor soil cover resulting into very poor economic development have been mainly responsible for low population density.

What is density of population? What are the high rural and urban populated areas

Density of Population:-

The density of population means the number of persons available per Sq.km. of area. As per the 2001 census, the average density of population in the country was 324 persons per Sq.km.

High rural population:-

1. As per the 2001 census of the total population in India, 74.16 crores or 72.22% live in villages which reveals that India is a par excellence a land of villages.

2. After Independence, with the development of diversified economies in the plan periods like industrialization, urbanization, transportation, education and other services the rural population has been decreasing.

3. In India, the largest proportion of rural population is found in Himachal Pradesh 90.21%, Sikkim (88.9%), Assam (87.28%), Arunachal Pradesh (79.59%), Uttar Pradesh (79.22%) and Dadra Nagar Haveli (77.11%).

High Urban Population:-

1. The urban population of India as per the 2001 census was 28.53 crores. The urban population accounts for 27.78% of the total population of the country.

2. In terms of absolute numbers of urban population, Maharashtra ranked first followed by Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal and Andhra Pradesh.

3. These five states together accounted for more than half (51.09%) of India’s urban population.

What are the problems of ‘Population explosion’

Problems of Population Explosion:-

1. India, at present, has been confronting with a trio interrelated problems.

2. They are population explosion, environmental pollution and scarcity of resources.

3. Population explosion had a direct impact on socio-economic development and environment.

4. The nation has been facing several socio-economic and ecological problems like:-
a. low standard of living
b. food crisis
c. energy crisis
d. water scarcity
e. economic crisis
f. resources crisis
g. uncontrolled urbanization with mushroom growth of slums
h. unemployment
i. mass poverty
j. dearth of housing
k. traffic problem
l. social friction
m. illiteracy etc.

5. The population explosion leads to depletion of the natural resources like land, soil, water, flora and fauna an also creates an ecological imbalance.

6. In order to feed the growing millions of mouths, the factors of economic development like urbanization, industrialization, transport and communication etc are likely to lead to environmental problems like atmospheric pollution, water pollution, noise pollution and the pollution of land.

7. As the ‘number two’ populous country in the world, India, is going to face a great resource scarcity and mass poverty. Every effort is to be made successfully for the control of population growth.

What are the methods for controlling population

The following are some of the important measures to be adopted to controlling population growth in our country.
1. People should understand the advantages of small family.
2. Better publicity should be given in villages and tribal areas about the benefits of family planning.
3. The practice of early marriage should be checked specially in tribal areas. The laws passed by the Government in this regard should be strictly in forced.
4. More funds should be allotted in five year plans for family welfare programmes..
5. Programmes for removing illiteracy and ignorance and superstition should be strengthened.
6. More incentives have to given for government employees and others who limit their families.
7. Voluntary Organisation and social service organizations should be involved in family planning work.
8. Every citizen should feel it his (or) her duty to strengthen the economy of India by following family planning methods voluntarily.

Extra Questions:-

1. What are the activities undertaken by the government to control the population growth?

To control the growth of population the government is implementing the family planning programmes and make the people aware of the small family norm and ills of over population.

2. “There is increasing trend of Urbanization in the country”. Why?
It is due to the increase of industrialization and migration of rural population to urban areas for employment opportunities in secondary and tertiary economic sectors and also for health and education.
3. What is Urbanization?

People leaving rural areas for towns and cities is Urbanization. Or Otherwise, increasing population in towns and cities is known as Urbanization.

Fill in the blanks:-

1. India 2nd most populous country in the world.

2. During 1991-2001 the highest growth rate was registered in Nagaland state while the lowest in Kerala.

3. The average density of population in India in 1991 is 273 , 2001 was 324.

4. The state with the lowest density of population Arunachal Pradesh.

5. The rank of Andhra Pradesh in the level of Urbanization is 5th.

6. The state with maximum urban population is Maharashtra

7. The state with highest population is Uttar Pradesh.

8. In 1991, 2001 the rural population in India was 629 millions. 741 millions.

9. By 2001 India’s population crossed 102.7 crores.

10. Agriculture is the main economic activity of about 70 percent of India’s Population.

11. The national average of urban population is 27.78%.

12. Maharashtra is the largest state with large number of towns.

13. The density of population of Andhra Pradesh according to 1991 was 242 persons per sq.km., 2001 was 275 person per sq.km.

14. Urbanization means the growthing number of towns and cities.

15. Agriculture has been providing the living base in the rural areas.

16. The year 1921 is called the “year of great divide” in the case of population studies in India.

17. Accordings to 2001 Census, the total population of Andhra Pradesh is 7.57 Crores.

Match the following:-

a. Persons 1 sq.km. [2] 1. Urbanization

b. Population live in cities and towns [1] 2. Density

c. Over-population [4] 3. Birth and Death rates

d. Factors of population trends [3] 4. Population Explosion

e. Highest density of Population [5] 5. Delhi

IRRIGATION AND POWER

What are the need for irrigation development in India(or)
why irrigation should be given priority in India

Need for Irrigation in India:-

In India where agriculture is the main stay of its economy, irrigation is considered to be a decisive factor in agricultural development due to the following reasons.

1. Inadequacy of rainfall
2. Uncertainity of rainfall,
3. To supply even in good rainfall areas,
4. Seasonal occurrence of rainfall,
5. To safeguard against droughts,
6. Increase of agricultural production through multiple cropping systems,
7. For the practice of superior cropping pattern,
8 For the promotion of farming of hybrid crops,
9 For effective utilization of follow lands.

What are the sources of irrigation

1. The most important sources and types of irrigation in India are
1. Wells
2. Tanks
3. Canals

2. Of them, Well irrigation is the most significant source as it accounted for 52.97% (1992-93) of the total irrigated area in the country.

3. Canal irrigation accounted for 34.1% and it is possible on all the river valley system.

4. Tank irrigation accounted for 6.5%

5. The remaining 6.5% is other sources of irrigation.

Name the factors favourable for irrigating vast areas

India is fortunate to have a number of geographical advantages for the development of irrigation. They are:-

1. Perennial rivers
2. Suitable sites for constructing dams,
3. Suitable topography for the construction of tanks,
4. Availability of sufficient ground water.
5. Gentle surface of arable land.

4. Distinguish between
(i) a open well and a tube well
(ii) Perennial and inundation canals (or)
What do you mean by perennial canals? In which part of the country are there in largest number of perennial Canals?

(i). Open Wells:-

Open wells dug at shallow depths generally irrigate a small area.

Tube Wells:-

1. It is a recent method of irrigation.

2. Tube wells are capable of serving a large area of crop land, because they can bring water form Great depths.

(ii). Perennial rivers:-

1. They are constructed by putting some form of barrage across the river which flow throughout the year.

2. These are certain and dependable for water supply.

3. The northern plains of India have the largest number of perennial rivers.

Inundation Canals:-

1. These canals are drawn directly from the rivers without making any kind of barrage or dam at their head to regulate the flow of river and canal.

2. Such canals depend entirely upon flood water during the rainy season.

3. When the floods subside, and the level of water in the river is low, these canals will dry up and cannot provide any irrigation.

4. The water supply of such canals is uncertain and not dependable for irrigation. A large number of inundation canals are in Punjab.

Give the reasons for the development of Well irrigation

1. Wells provide the most widely distributed source of irrigation in India.

2. Utilization of ground water at shallow depths by means of irrigation wells is an important and indigenous method of irrigation in the non-deltaic tracts and non-canal irrigated areas.
3. Precarious rainfall conditions and absence of canal irrigation have prompted the farmers to tap sub-surface water for intensive cultivation in small land holdings.

4. Introduction of technological methods like oil engines,pumpsets and drilling machines of water lifting have helped to achieve rapid development in the field.

Write the favourable conditions for the development of tank irrigation in South India

1. Irrigation by tanks is very popular in Deccan Plateau region of the country.

2. The topography is very undulating due to which there are large number of natural depressions which are suitable for constructing tanks.

3. The sub-soil layer is hard and impervious

4. They facilitate the storing of water for a long duration.

5. In this region the absence of perennial rivers and insignificance of canal and well irrigation types, made the farmers to go for the tanks.

6. Relatively, agriculture under tank irrigation is more risk-prone than canal and well irrigation, because most of the tanks are seasonal and rainfed in character.

What is intensity of irrigation and where it is high in India

1. The conjunctive use of both the surface and the sub-surface water for irrigation and an aggregate use of canal, tank and well irrigation provides an overall view of the status of total irrigation in the country.

2. The overall intensity of irrigation is calculated as the percentage of total irrigated area from all sources of the total cultivated area of the particular areal segment.

3. In 1992-93, the total irrigated area form all sources was about 35.7% of the total cultivated area of the country.

4. Within the country, the highest intensity of irrigation is found in Punhab (94.6%) while he lowest is in Mizoram state (7.8%)

Distinguish between Major, Medium and Minor irrigation projects

1. Since India is an agricultural economy, the Prime thinking of our Five Year Plans is the highly efficient and irrigated cropping system.
2. Therefore, the expansion of irrigation potential and its optimum utilisation has been considered to a high priority in all the plan periods.

3. In this endeavour, several major, medium and minor irrigation projects have been taken up for the development of irrigation in the country.

The Planning Commission has defined these irrigation schemes as follows:-

1. Major irrigation projects:-

Major irrigation projects are those with Command Area (CA) of more than 10,000 hectares. These projects are constructed across rivers.

2. Medium irrigation projects:-

Medium irrigation projects are those with CA’s between 2,000 and 10,000 hectares. These projects are also constructed across rivers and small tributaries.

3. Minor irrigation projects:-

Minor irrigation projects are those with CA’s upto 2,000 hectares. These schemes include ground water and surface water schemes. Ground water schemes include dug wells, shallow tube wells and pump sets while the surface water schemes include tanks, reservoir diversion schemes and lift irrigation from rivers and streams.

What are the objectives of Command Area Development scheme

1. A Centrally sponsored Command Area Development (CAD) has been implemented since1974-75 with the basic objective of reducing the gap between potential created and potential utilized.

2. This programme Envisages the construction of fieldchannels,field drains,land leveling and shaping.

3. This programme also encompassed demonstration and training of farmers and introduction of suitable cropping patterns

4. The main strategy of irrigation sector in this plan is to ensure speedy transition to irrigated agriculture.

5. Optimum use of water through the Command Area Development(CAD)installation of sprinkler and drip irrigation systems in water scarce and drought prone areas an encouragement to surface of water and lift irrigation are also main objectives in this scheme.
What are the three important regions of hydro-power

There are three important regions for the generation of Hydro electricity in India. They are:-

1. The most important region for the potential hydro-power lies along the foot hills of the Himalayas stretching from Kashmir to Arunachal Pradesh.

2. The Second water power potential region lies along the Western Ghats running through Maharashtra and broadening out in the South in Karnataka, Tamilnadu and Kerala.

3. The third important hydro-power potential region lies along the Satpura, the Vindhyas, the Mahadeo and the Maikal ranges in Central India.

What to do you mean by a multipurpose project

Multipurpose Project:-

A project constructed across a river with a number of purposes is called a multipurpose project.

The main purposes of these projects are:-

1. To provide better and extensive irrigation facilities for the increase of agricultural production,

2. To control of the floods in the river Courses.

3. To produce a large quantity of hydro-electric power,

4. To develop internal navigation.

5. To encourage fish culture,

6. To provide scope for afforestation and soil conservation on a large scale in the catchment areas of the reservoirs, and

7. To attract a large number of travellers and thus promote tourism.

Name half a dozen important multipurpose projects in India

Ever since from the First Five Year Plan, many projects are constructed as multipurpose projects. They are:-

1. Bhakra-Nangal project
2. The Beas project
3. Damodar Valley project
4. Hiracud project
5. Nagarjunasagar project
6. Tunghabadra project
7. Kosi project
8. Chambal project
9. Gandak project
10. Ramganga project

Mention the conditions that favour to generate hydro electric power

Hydel Power can be generated only under certain favourable conditions like.

1. Permanent supply of water.

2. Rugged relief, so as to cause water to fall from a height.

3. Warm climate, so as to avoid frozen condition of the river water and

4. Heavy rainfall tend to make more storage of water in the dams and reservoirs where the rivers are non-perennial.

Mention two multi –purpose projects that are administered by Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan. Mention the main purpose and potentialities of these two projects

1. Bakra Nangal project:-

1. Among the major multipurpose projects in the country the Bakra Nangal project is one. It was built across the Sutlej and Bakra and Nangal in Punjab.
2. It is built to supply water to Punjab , Haryana and Rajasthan.
3. It is the Biggest Project in India.
4. It irrigates 14.6 Lakh Hectares and generates 1204 M.W of power.

2. Beas Project:-

The Beas project is multipurpose project in the country . It links the Beas and Sutlej Rivers. It Consists of
1. Beas – Sutlej link and Beas Dam constructed across the Beas at Pong.
2. It serves the needs of Punjab , Haryana and Rajasthan.
3. Its main purposes are Hydro – Electric Generation and irrigation.
4. It irrigates 17 Lakh Hectares and generates 1020 MW of power.

Fill in the blanks:-

1. Inundation canals depend entirely upon flood water.

2. Tank irrigation is more prevalent in Deccan plateau.

3. Perennial canals draw their water from dams and barrages.

4. Most of the tanks in India are seasonal and rainfed.

5. An Inundation can provide water only during rainy season.

6. The Bakra-Nangal project is located in the state of Himachal Pradesh.

7. The benefits of Kosi project shared by India and Nepal.

8. Damodar project is administered by Damodur valley Authority (DVA).

9. Hiracud project constructed across the river Mahanadi.

10. The Thungabadhra project is a joint venture of Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh.

11. Ramganga Project is in Uttar Pradesh.

12. The joint project of Bihar and Nepal is Kosi Project.

13. Kosi Project is an international multi purpose project.

14. Tanks are more in Andhra Pradesh.

15. Agriculture is the rainstay of economy in agriculture.

16. Nagarjuna sagar project constructed across the river Krishna.

17. Maximum hectarage of canal irrigation is found in Uttar Pradesh.

18. Hiracud dam is in Orissa.

19. Bhakra Nangal Project is the largest in India with 1204 Mega walts of power generation.

20. The highest intensity of irrigation is found in Punjab and lowest in Mizoram.

21. CAD stand for Command Area Development.

22. Hydro-electricity is known as White Gold.

23. Tanks are more in Andhra Pradesh State in India.

24. Tungabhadra Project serves the need of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka.

Match the following:-

1. Ramganga                           [b] a. Nepal

2. Hiracud                                [d] b. Uttar Pradesh

3. Gandak                                [a] c. Andhra Pradesh

4. Chambal                              [e] d. Orissa

5. Nagarjunasagar                   [c] e. Rajasthan

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