NATIONALIST MOVEMENTS

NATIONALIST MOVEMENTS

 

Write an essay of rise and fall of Napoleon

Ans. 1. Napoleon Bonaparte was born at Ajaccio in the island of Corsica On 15th
August 1769 in a poor lawyer’s family.

2. At the age of 16, he joined in French army as the second lieutenant and suppressed the lawlessness of revolutionary France vehemently.

3. In 1793, Napoleon resisted the English Naval fleet from capturing Toulon and forced them to take to heels. Robespierre, one of the leaders of Reign of terror praised him for this and promoted him as Brigadier General.

4. When the people of France revolted against National Convention on 5th October, 1795, he crushed completely and promoted as the Commander of the army of the interior.

5. He defeated Austria and Italy and brought victory to France. Afterwards, he was defeated by Nelson of British Navy in his Egyptian Campaign in May 1798.

6. After his defeat in Egypt, he returned to France, dethroned the directory and established the consulate government in France in 1799. This office was between 1799-1804.In this duration he had introduced many administrative reforms in the country.

7. In December, 1804 he got coronated as the “Emperor of France”, and waged several wars of aggression and had redrawn the map of Europe through his successful conquests.

8. Napoleon introduced the famous continental system in order to defeat England in an indirect war. By this system he wanted to destroy the trade and commerce of England.

9. Napoleon had to wage wars against Portugal, Spain, and Russia in order to get his scheme implemented effectively. All these measures which he adopted for the success of this scheme proved detrimental to his interest and contributed to his downfall.

10. At Leipzig, a fierce battle was fought between Napoleon and allied forces for three days in October 1813. This battle was called “Battle of Nations”. Napoleon was defeated and sent into the island of Elba in April 1814.
11. Napoleon suddenly came back to France on 1st March, 1815. Once again he was defeated and sent to St. Helena in Rocky island, and there he died in1821.

Describe the military campaign of Napoleon

Ans. Military Campaign of Napoleon:-

1. Napoleon joined in the French Army as second lieutenant. During the French revolution he suppressed the lawlessness revolutions and got promotion to the post of the Commander of the army. From then onwards he launched a carrier of wars.

2. During the period of revolution he defeated Austria and Italy and brought victory to France. Afterwards, he was defeated by Nelson of British Navy in his Egyptian campaign in May 1798.

3. After capturing the power from directory, he defeated countries like Austria, Prussia and Russia and he had redrawn the map of Europe. But he could not defeat England.

4. So, to defeat England Napoleon introduced the famous continental system in order to defeat England. By this system he wanted to destroy the trade and commerce of England.

5. All these measures which he adopted for the success of this scheme proved detrimental to his interest and contributed to his downfall.

6. Several attempts were made by other European nations forming into groups to crush Napoleon. He was defeated in the “Battle of Nations” or “Battle of Leipzig” in 1813 and was sent to the island of Elba.

7. Napoleon came back to France on 1st March 1815 and captured power.

8. Alarmed at these developments, these allies joined together once again to crush him.

9. A fierce battle was fought in the plains of Waterloo where Napoleon Army was defeated.

10. He was sent to St. Helena in the Rocky island and there he died in 1821.

Describe the continental system of Napoleon

Ans. Continental system of Napoleon:-

1. Napoleon who was a great imperialist wanted to conquer the whole of Europe.
2. Except England, he had redrawn the map of Europe and conquered it.

3. So, to defeat England Napoleon introduced the famous continental system.

As a part of his continental system, he took the following measures:-

1. By this system, he wanted to destroy the trade and commerce of England.

2. He asked his vassal countries to ban the entry and movement of British ships around their ports.

3. This resulted in shooting up of prices of various commodities. The poor people started to suffer hardship and blaming Napoleon.

4. Napoleon had to wage wars against Portugal, Spain and Russia in order to get his scheme implemented effectively.

5. All these measures which he adopted for the success of this scheme proved detrimental to his interests and contributed to his downfall.

Write an essay on congress of Vienna of 1815

Ans. Essay on congress of Vienna of 1815:-

1. After the fall of Napoleon, a conference of heads of European countries was held at Vienna, the capital of Austria in 1815. Under the chairmanship of Metternich, the Chancellor of Austria.

2. Congress of Vienna was attended by prominent rulers, famous statesmen, able Diplomats and Politicians, Generals and Scholars of all the European countries.

3. The principles guiding the congress of Vienna were
a. Restoration and Legitimacy
b. Balance of power
c. Compensation and
d. Rewards and Punishments

a. Restoration and Legitimacy:-
Under Legitimacy and Restoration it was decided that the rights of those rulers who had been deprived of their thrones and driven from their states by Napoleon should be re-established.
b. Balance of Power:-
Under the principle of balance of power it was decided that the power of different countries should be balanced. So that, no country could threaten another one.
c. Compensation¬:-
The congress of Vienna decided that those kingdoms that had either been destroyed or damaged by Napoleon should be compensated.

d. Rewards and Punishments:-
The congress of Vienna decided that those states which had helped the allies against Napoleon were to be rewarded and those states which had supported Napoleon were to be punished.

5.What are the causes that led to the downfalls of Napoleon?

1. Napoleon introduced the famous continental system in order to defeat England. By this system he wanted to destroy the trade and commerce of England.

2. He asked his vassal countries to ban the entry and movement of British ships around their ports.

3. This resulted in shooting up of prices of various commodities. The poor people started to suffer hardship and blaming Napoleon.

4. Napoleon had to wage wars against Portugal, Spain and Russia in order to get his scheme implemented effectively.

5. He was defeated in the “Battle of Nations” or “Battle of Leipzig” in 1813 and was sent to the island of Elba.

6. He was sent to St. Helena in the Rocky island and there he died in 1821.

To What extent can you attribute Charles X’s responsibility for the outbreak of 1830 revolt in France

Ans. There were many causes for outbreak of 1830 revolution in France.

1. The congress of Vienna restored Louis-XVIII as the king of France.

2. He realised that the restoration of old order was impossible.

3. But under the influence of royalists, Louis-XVIII began to introduce certain reactionary reforms. The Tricolour flag, a symbol of revolution was ordered to be given up as a National flag and imposed heavy censor ship on press.

4. In France, after Louis-XVIII, Charles-X came to the throne.

5. Charles-X was highly reactionary and an ardent supporter of old rule.

6. He completely took away the freedom of press.

7. He had restored the properties of all those lords and nobles after their return to France. He also abolished National guard.

8. These measures of Charles-X, gave rise to the symptoms of revolt from French people.

9. In order to suppress these revolutionary forces, he appointed Poligna-C-Prince De, as Prime Minister of France, even without the approval of French Parliament.
10. In addition to taking up the above reactionary measures, he also passed four decrees on 26th July, 1830 which reduced the span of the elected legislature, abolished freedom of press.

11. This gave rise to the outbreak of 1830 revolt.

What were the causes for the outbreak of 1848 revolution in France

Ans. Louis Phillip ruled France between 1830 and 1848. It was in Louis Phillip’s period that yet another revolt occurred in France.
Causes for the revolt :-

1. Louis Phillip’s responsibility:-

1. Louis Phillip had several liberal ideas and called himself “People’s King”.

2. By the time of in his rule several political parties have came into existence. With them he adopted a golden mean policy.

3. He tried to rule like a moderate, so that no party would go against him.

4. But he placed himself under the influence of Constitutionalists. This made Royalists, Republicans and Bonapartists to dislike him.

5. To develop the industries in France he gave a lot of patronage to the upper middle class and the Constitutionalists. Therefore he earned opposition from all other sections of the society.

2. Dissatisfaction among Republicans:-

1. Republicans were the real people who were responsible for the success of 1830 revolt.

2. They aimed to set up a republic for France. But the enthronement of Louis Phillip fluctuated their objective to set up a Republic.

3. The Republicans continuously tried to oust the Monarchy.

3. Reform Party:-

1. Their’s was the political leader of the Reform party demanded the extension of the suffrage and limitation of Royal power.

2. But Guizot, the Kings minister refused to accept any demands and ran the government by means of political corruption.
3. The conscious and intelligent people felt disgusted with the affairs of the state and raised their voice for reforms.

4. Growth of trade union and working class:-

1. Louis Phillip not only failed to bring about implementation of effective welfare measures to the working class but also tried to suppress the growing working class consciousness.

2. His foreign policy was one of non-intervention, poor and timid. This brought National Pride of France to a very low level.

5. Birth of Socialist party:-

1. Dissatisfied with the government policies, a new party came into existence namely Socialist party and their leader was Louis Blanc.

2. Their demand included providing work to every person, estimation of private capitalists
6. The Causes of the Revolt:-

1. Reform Banquests were organized by the dissatisfied groups. But the Army was sent to disrupt such Banquets. Army opened fire and taking 20 lives and causing injuries to many people. On hearing this, people revolted and marched with dead bodies in Paris street.

2. The Army joined hands with the revolutionaries. So, the king fled away to England.

Bring out the impact of 1848 revolt of France on other European countries

Ans. The 1848 revolt had its impact not only on France, but also on other countries like Austria, Hungary, Italy and Germany.
Austria:-

1. With inspiration of 1848 force Revolt, Students and working class had assembled before the Royal palace at the residence of Metternich and made demonstrations and even destroyed his residence.

2. Having learnt that the revolutionaries have the support of the National Army, Metternich made a secret escape with his family to England.

Hungary:-

1. Under the leadership of Kossuth, Hungarian people revolted and tried to free themselves from Austria.
2. Due to the lack of unity among different racial people in Hungary, Austria with the help of Russia suppressed the revolt and Kossuth left the country.

Italy:-

1. People of Lombardy and Venetia free themselves from Austria with the help of Sardinian King Charles Albert.

2. But the Austria regained control over these states.

Germany:-

1. On hearing the outbreak of revolution in France in 1848, all over Germany ran high and people forced their rulers to grant constitutional reforms.

2. Nationalists of all states of Germany, convened a National Parliament at Frankfurt. They formed a new constitution in this way.

Give an account of role played by Bismark in the Unification of Germany

Ans. Role played by Bismark in the Unification of Germany:-

1. The credit of Unification of Germany goes to Bismark, the Prime Minister of Prussia.

2. He became the Prime Minister of Prussia in 1862. He followed the policy of ‘Blood and Iron’. He wanted to adopt this policy in the war.

3. At first the aim of Bismark’s diplomacy was to drive out Austria from Germany and gain friends in the International politics. This one came during the polish insurrection of 1863.

4. In 1863, Polish people rose against Russia. So that Bismark offered Prussian assistance to Russia. This was a big diplomatic victory to Bismark, for he had now nothing to fear from Russia in the event of war with Austria.

5. In a brief spell of six years (1864-1870) he had succeeded in achieving unification of Germany through three wars.

I. War with Denmark:-

1. The two states Schleswig and Holstein lie to the North of Germany and they were united with Denmark. These were important states for German Unity.

2. He waged a war against Denmark over the issue of Schleswig and Holstein with the help of Austria.

3. The combined forces defeated Denmark and Austria took control over Holstein, and Prussia took to administration of Schleswig.

Austro-Prussian War:-

1. Bismark wanted Austria to be alone without friends and drive out from Germany.

2. For this he made friendship with Napoleon of France and requested him for a neutrality in the case of Prussian war with Austria. Bismark promised France that he would accept for the French expansion towards Rhine.

3. He also won Italian support to give Venetia to Italians in case of Prussian victory over Austria.

4. After making friendship with Russia, France and Italy, he waged a war against Austria in July 1866. Austria was defeated at Sadowa.

5. Austria was made to quit paid 200 million pounds as war indemnity. With these victory over Austria, North Germany was unified.

Franco-Prussian War:-

1. Napoleon-III, started to demand compensation for his neutrality in the Austro-Prussian war.

2. Bismark was not willing to offer any compensation to France.

3. Bismark also wanted war with France for France had some influence in South Germany.

4. The immediate cause for the war was found in Spanish succession.

5. The war broke out in July 1870 and lasted for 6 months. France got defeated.

6. With the defeat of France, all the Southern States of Germany joined hands with Prussia. Thus Bismark would accomplish the Unification of Germany in three stages.

7. The Franco-Prussian war ended with signing of the treaty of “Frankfurt”. The treaty gave Alsace and Loranne to Germany. Thus, the Unification of Germany was completed.

8. Victorious Prussians coronated William-I as the first United Germany emperor.

Bring out the way how Italy achieved unification under the leadership of Sardinia state

Ans. The real work of the unification of Italy began with the assumption of the office of the Prime Minister by Cavour in Piedmont. The unification of Italy was accomplished under five stages.

First Stage:-

1. Cavour, the prime minister of Sardinia concluded the fact of ‘Plombiers’ with Napoleon-III.

2. With the help of France(Napoleon-III), Austria was defeated and achieved Lombardy.

Second Stage:-

1. In the second stage through Plebiscite Parma, Modina and Tuskany were merged into the kingdom of Sardinia.

Third Stage:-

1. Garibaldi landed in Sicily in 1860 with his army of thousand known as ‘Red Shirts’ and he captured Sicily and Naples.

2. Garibaldi surrendered the administration of Naples and Sicily to victor Emmanuel-II.

3. Except Venetia and Rome, the Italian unification was over.

4. At this stage Cavour died. His work was completed by Victor Emmanuel-II.

Fourth Stage:-

1. During the Austro-Prussian war in 1866, Venetia was invaded, weakening Austria’s might against Prussia by Sardinia.

2. Austria was defeated at Sadowa and he got Venetia.

Fifth Stage:-

1. When Franco-Prussian war broke out in 1870, Napoleon-III, was compelled to withdraw his army from Rome.

2. Taking advantage of the situation, Victor invaded Rome and captured it.

3. It was merged into Sardinia Piedmont, Victor Emmanuel was declared as the King of United Italy.

Thus with the contribution made by Mazzini, Garibaldi, Cavour and Victor Emmanuel-II, the unification of Italy was achieved.

What factors paved the wage, for the establishment of Paris commune of 1871

Ans. Factors:-

1. Napoleon-III had Monarchical leanings, within 4 years, he set up the second empire of France.

2. He dissolved the assembly, arrested the opposition leaders and by a Plebiscite of the people, he was declared as the emperor of France in 1852.

3. He earned bad name in foreign policy and undertook colonial expansion.

4. He earned another bad name for not keeping the promise to Italians in their unification.

5. First he promised to help Italians and fought against Austria and in the middle of the war withdrew the support of France.

6. On account of his support during the first stage the Catholics rose against him and for withdrawing the support in the middle, the liberals rose against him.

7. Napoleon-III, invaded Mexico taking advantage of the American civil war. Inspite of their Internal crisis, Americans applied ‘Munroe doctrine’ and French army was driven back to France. This was essentially a blow to Napoleon-III’s and France Prestige. This resulted in the revolt by communists in France.

8. During the Revolt, the people of poverty stricken in Paris got attracted to the promises of the socialists and a commune was established in Paris in February 1871.

9. The government wanted to control the situation but failed. This led to a civil war. The French government ordered the army to break the commune.

10. In April 1871, about 1,50,000 army men began seize of the city of Paris and Versailles. The army continued its firing until the last of the revolutionaries surrendered.

11. About 7000 people were killed, about 43,000 people were convicted and 7,500 were deported.
Thus, ended the experiment of communists in Paris, with the fall of Paris commune.

Write a short notes on the following:-

1. Karl Marx:-

1. Karl Marx was the author of two books namely ‘Das Capital’ and ‘Communist Manifesto’.

2. In ‘Communist Manifesto’ he gave a new direction to the Philosophy of Socialism.

3. His ‘Communist Manifesto’ has been describe as the birth cry of modern society. His ‘Das Capital’ is the base of modern communism.

4. He believed that the course of history was determined by the economic factors alone and drew conclusion that history was “nothing but a record of class struggle”.

5. He also believed that Proletariat would assume dictatorship after the social revolution.

2. First International:-

1. To unite the workers all over the world, Marx organized the International workingmen’s association in London in 1864.

2. This International gathering was called “First International”.

3. It was attended by delegates from almost all European countries and a pledge was taken to propagate Marxian socialism in the World.

4. The anarchist followers of Marx caused the failure of First International.

5. This international was also discredited by the failure of the communist uprising of 1871 in Paris.

3. Ems Telegram:-

1. In 1863, the Spanish people being fed up with their ruler, Isabella, removed from her throne and offered it to Leopold, who was a very close relative of the Prussian King.

2. Napoleon of French raised serious objections and wanted to get a promise from Prussian King that he would not interfere in the Spanish succession war.

3. The Prussian King rejected the wish of Napoleon-III and sent the whole message through the telegram from the city of Ems to Bismark who was stationed at Berlin.

4. This is called Ems Telegram. The content of the telegram was manipulated by Bismark in such a way that it would create hatred between the people of Prussia and France against each another.

5. This results in a war between France and Prussia.

4. Cavour:-

1. Cavour was born in 1810 in a noble family of Piedmont in Italy. He was interested particularly in the ‘Parliamentary System’ of England.

2. He expressed his views through a news paper, named Resorgimento, which he started.

3. He got himself elected to the first Piedmontese parliament. Later in 1852 he was elevated to the office of prime minister.

4. All the liberal forces rallied round Cavour. He developed his kingdom in all the fields.

5. He strongly believed that Italy would achieve unity only with the external assistance. He felt it necessary to isolate Austria in the International field and then to oust her from Italy.

5. Red Shirts:-

1. Garibaldi was a sailor and soldier. He organized war against the enemies of Italy.

2. In 1860 Garibaldi landed in ‘Sicily’ to help the revolutionaries, commanding an army of thousands known as “Red Shirts”.

3. He captured Sicily, he also brought Naples under his control and surrended them to the king Sardinian Piedmont.

4. With his work except Venetia and Rome, unification of Italy was over

6. Young Italy:-

1. Mazzini was an intellectual and a spiritual force behind Italian resurrection.

2. He stood for unified Italy and Republican form of Italy.

3. He founded the young Italy, a revolutionary society. Membership into this society was open only to youth of below 40 years of age.

4. Very soon thousands of young men of the country joined his organization with Zeal and Patriotism displayed by the martyrs.

5. They were prepared to under go the severest hardship in the cause of their mother land.

6. He made several attempts to bring revolution to this society.

In this way, Mazzini contributed his ideological support for the unification of Italy

Explain Cavour’s aims and methods

1. Cavour stood for prosperous agriculture and brisk trade.

2. He introduced railways and brought about prosperity in the country.

3. He strongly believed that Italy would achieve unity only with the external
Assistance.

4. He felt it necessary to isolate Astria in the International fields and them to oust from Italy.

 

When early attempts failed Germany decided to do three things. What are they

Ans. For the unification of Germany three things has to be done. They were:
1. The abolition of German confederation.
2. Expulsion of Austria from Germany.
3. New adjustment of relation with the princes with a view to persuading them to accept a political unity of Germany.

What was the outcome of 1830 revolution in France

Ans. 1. The liberal and revolutionary forces rose in revolt against Charles-X. They
were supported by the national army.

2. Charles-X could not control the revolutionary forces. So, he abdicated the
throne and fled away to England in 1830.

3. The revolutionaries elected Louis Phillip a member of Orlien family as the
new emperor of France.

What were the effects of 1830 revolution on other European countries

Ans. Effects:-

1. The 1830 revolution raised spirits in the countries like Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Portugal and Poland.

2. The revolt in Belgium was successful which resulted in driving away Dutch from Belgium.

3. But in other countries, the revolts were suppressed.

4. But on the whole, it can be said that the forces of liberalism had gained strength.

4. How far was Louis Phillip responsible for 1848 revolt in France?

Ans. 1. He had several views. He called himself “Peoples King” and he owed his
existence to the will of the people.

2. By the time of his period, several political parties have came into existence to
the will of the people.

3. He failed to change with the times and it was this weakness of his, that
compelled him to abdicate the throne.

4. He placed himself under the influence of constitutionalists. This made the
Royalists, Republicans and Bonapartists to dislike him.

What were the results of 1848 revolt

Ans. Results of 1848 revolt:-

1. As a result of the revolt of 1848 monarchy was abolished in France. The revolt
in France led to the growth of consciousness in Italy and Germany which
paved way for their unifications.

2. All supporters of Metternich and Royalists were made to step down.

3. For the first time working class led the revolts in France and Italy.

4. It also paved the way for proletarian and socialist revolutions in Europe.

Write about Zolloverein

Ans. 1. In 1818, Prussia formed a customs union called ‘Zolloverein’, which included
a number of neighbouring states under one economic system based upon free
trade.

2. The members agreed to evolve a common fiscal policy by removing all
restrictive tariff.

3. Except Austria all the German states had joined the union by 1850.

4. Prussia headed the union.

What is meant by Carbonary

Ans. Carbonary:-

1. Not finding any other way to express their freedom of speech, the
revolutionary force of Italy formed secret societies.

2. Most important among such secret societies was Carbonary.

3. Carbonary was first started in Naples and spread through out Italy.

4. This objective was to free Italy and establish political independence. But, the revolt of these societies were suppressed by Austrian and French forces.

Who were people who propagated the socialist ideas in the early stages

Ans. 1. Socialist ideas came up as a reaction to capitalist exploitation.

2. The labour class grew consciousness of rights and place in industry. Robert
Owen, Saint Simon, Fourier Louis Blanc, Karl Marx propagated socialist ideas.
9. What is meant by Coming turn?

Ans. 1. Socialism advocated by Marx was not confined to the working class of one
country alone.

2. He said that, it would be accepted by entire working class of the world.

3. With this aim, he organized international conferences of workers.

4. These were called Communist’s International or Coming turn.

Write about the aim of socialism

Ans. 1. Socialist movements aimed at removing economic disparities between man
and man.

2. And by putting end to an economic system which very frequent the extremes
of plenty and poverty side by side.

11. What is Risorgimento?

Ans. Resorgimento is a newspaper started by count cavour in Italy through which expressed his view for independence of Italy.

What was called the Battle of Nations? What were its results

Ans. 1. At Leipzig, a fierce battle was fought for three days, in October 1813. This
battle was called the The Battle of Nations Results.
2. Napoleon was defeats in this Battle
3. Allied Nations gave him a small Island of Elba to live.

What is the First International

Ans. The international working man’s association organized in London in 1864 by Karl Marx was to unite workers all over the world. This is known as First International.

What were Red shirts

Ans. They were the followers of Garibaldi. They were the revolutionaries and they were 1000 in number.

 What is meant by Young Italy

Ans. Young Italy is a revolutionary society with educational and intellectual favour founded by Mazzini in Italy.

What is the Base of modern communism

Ans. Karl Mark’s Das capital is the base of modern communism.

Fill in the blanks:-

1. The third international was held at Moscow.

2. The Franco Prussian war ended with the treaty of Frankfurt.

3. Charles Albert was king of Sardinia.

4. The battle of waterloo was held in 1815.

5. Das Capital was written by Karl Marx.

6. 1848 revolt occurred in France, during the period of Louis Philippe

7. Congress of Vienna was held in 1815.

8. The first emperor of United Germany was Fredrick William-I.

9. Battle of Nations was fought at Leipzig.

10. Confederation of Rhyne was farmed by Napoleon.

11. Communist Manifesto was written by Karl Marx.

12. To defeat England indirectly, Napoleon introduced Continental system.

13. Carbonary was Secret Society.

14. Napoleon was born in Corsica.

15. Louis Blanc advocated the principle of right to work.

16. Young Italy was found by Mazzini.

17. Father of Italian Nationalism was Mazzini.

18. Bismark’s policy was “Blood and Iron”.

19. Bismark was the prime minister of Prussia.

20. Victor Emmanuel-II was King of Italy.

21. 1830 revolution occurred in France during the period of Charles-X.

22. 1830 revolution inspired national spirit in Germany, Poland, Spain, Portugal, Belgium and Italy.

23. The 1830 revolt brought success to the revolutionaries only in the countries of Belgium and France.

24. Louis Phillip’s minister who made people disgusted through his conservative reactionary and corrupt practices was Guizote.

25. Poligna-C-Prince De was the prime minister of Charles-X.

26. The February revolution occurred in France in 1848.

27. In France after Louis Philippe a republic government was established by Louis Blanc.

28. During the revolution of 1848, the Hungarians revolted against Austria under the leadership of Kossuth.

29. Zolloverein of customs union was formed by Prussia.

30. Fichte and Hegal were the leaders of great intellectual leaders in Germany.

31. The polish Insurrection took place in 1863.

32. In the Austro Prussian War of 1866, Austria was defeated in the battle of Sadowa.

33. Alscae and Lorrane was given to Germany in the treaty of Frankfurt.

34. Mazzini studies thousand visions of historical dramas and romances.

35. Mazzini founded Young Italy.

36. Membership of young Italy was opened to youth below 40 years of age.

37. The First International was founded in 1864 at London.

38. The red shirts were the followers of Garibaldi.

39. ‘History was nothing but a record of class struggles’ was said by Karl Marx.

40. Poland was kept under the control of Russia.

41. Carbonary was started in Naples.

42. Plato talked of equality of wealth.

43. Karl Marx gave a new direction to the philosophy of socialism.

44. Second International was held in 1889.

45. American applied Munroe Doctrine in Mexican affairs.

46. The experiments of communism in Paris ended with the fall of Paris Commune.

47. Karl Marx’s Communist Manifesto had been described as the birth cry of modern society.

48. The great French Revolution occurred in the year 1789

Match the following:-

1. Metternich                               [d] a. Hungary

2. Louis Blanc                               [e] b. Sardinia

3. Charles Albert                          [b] c. Germany

4. Fredrick William                       [c] d. Austria

5. Kossuth                                    [a] e. Socialism

http://www.chittoorlive.in/imperialism/