Name the few important centres for each of the following industries.

a. Woolen industry :-

The leading centres for woolen textiles are
1. Punjab – Dhariwal, Amritsar, Ludhiana and Kharar.
2. Maharashtra – Mumbai
3. U.P. – Kanpur, Mirzapur and Agra
4. Gujarat – Jamnagar, Baroda and Ahmedabad
5. Karnataka – Bangalore
6. West Bengal – Calcutta and
7. Jammu and Kashmir – Srinagar.

b. Silk industry :-

1. Karnataka holds the monopoly in silk production.

2. West Bengal and Bihar are also very important for silk goods.

3. The notable centres for silk textiles are Mysore, Channapatna, Calcutta, Bhagalpur, Srinagar, Varanasi, Mumbai and Amritsar.

c. Jute industry :-

1. West Bengal state is the leading producer of jute products in the country.

2. The other centres for jute textiles are :-
a. Andhra Pradesh :- Chittivalasa, Nellimarla, Eluru, Guntur and Ongole.
b. Uttar Pradesh :- Kanpur and Ghorakhpur
c. Bihar :- Kathiar and Muktapur
d. Madhya Pradesh :- Raigarh

d. Cement industry :-

1. Tamilnadu is the largest producer of cement in India.

2. The other major cement producing states are Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Gujarat, Rajasthan, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Orissa.

e. Paper industry :-

1. West Bengal is the pioneer state in the paper industry. In this state, Calcutta is the largest centre of production.

2. The other important states for paper industry are Maharashtra, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Madhya Pradesh.

3. In Andhra Pradesh, A.P. paper mills in Rajahmundry and Sirpur paper mills are very important.

What are the favourable factors for the development of cotton textiles in and around Mumbai and Ahmedabad centres

The following are the favourable factors for the development of cotton textiles in and around Mumbai and Ahmedabad centres.

1. There is the abundant availability of raw cotton in Maharashtra and Gujarat.

2. Both the centres have a good network of transport and communication facilities.

3. The centres have the favourable humid climate for getting cotton without any twists and cut offs and plentiful supply of water for the industry.

4. Cheap hydel power is available at these two centres for its development

5. Important factor is the abundant availability of both skilled and unskilled labour.

6. Port facilities are available at Bombay (Mumbai) both for imports and exports.

7. Good market facilities are found there not only from the home land but also from outside, particularly from middle east and west.

8. The two urban centres provide a large network of banking facilities for capital.

9. In the initial stages the British Government and Managing companies gave a boost to this industry. Later the state Government took the initiative in developing Textiles industry in Maharashtra and Gujarat.

Why the location of sugar industry is strictly confine to very close vicinity of sugarcane growing area

1. Sugarcane which is perishable and weight losing raw material.

2. That’s why it cannot be transported to long distances.

3. After the harvest of the crop, the cane is to be immediately processed because the sucrose content declines with the lapse of time.

4. Therefore the sugar factory is to be located near the place of sugarcane cultivation.

Name the raw materials required for iron and steel industry

1. The primary raw materials required to iron and steel industry are iron ore, manganese, chromite, cooking coal and the flux materials like limestone or dolomite.

2. The lower the transport cost for assembling of raw materials at the industry site, the cheaper is the rate of production of pig iron an steel.

3. From his point of view, the location of many iron and steel plants is at very close proximity to the source of the primary raw materials – iron ore and coal.

4. Iron and steel is the huge capital based industry.

Name the important steel plants in the country

The important steel plants in the country are :-

The Tata Iron and Steel Company (TISCO) :-

1. The Tata Iron and Steel Company (TISCO) was set up in 1907 at Jamshedpur in Bihar.

2. It is the largest steel plant in the private sector.

The Indian Iron and Steel Company (IISCO) :-

1. The Indian Iron and Steel Company (IISCO) started three plants in 1918 at Burnpur, Hirapur and Kulti near Asansol in West Bengal.

2. In the beginning it was started under the private sector, but in 1972 the company’s management was taken over by the Government.

The Visveswaraya Iron and Steel Ltd (VISL) :-

1. The Visveswaraya Iron and Steel Ltd. was set up by Peri and Marshall Co. (USA) in 1923 at Bhadravathi.

2. The Central Government took over the management of it in 1962.

The Rourkela Steel Plant :-

The Rourkela Steel Plant in Orissa was built with German collaboration in 1959 under public sector.

The Bhilai Steel Plant :-

The Bhilai Steel Plant in Madhya Pradesh was set up under public sector with the assistance of the erstwhile Soviet Union in 1959.

The Durgapur Steel Plant :-

The Durgapur Steel Plant was set up under the public sector in 1959 in West Bengal with the assistance of British Government.

The Bokaro Steel Plant :-

The Bokaro Steel Plant was set up under the public sector in 1964 near the confluence of the Bokaro and Damodar rivers in Bihar with the erst while soviet collaboration.

To achieve balanced regional economic development in the industrial sector, four more public sector plants are established at salem (Tamilnadu), Vishakapatnam (Andhra Pradesh) Vijaynagar near Hospet (Karnataka) and at paradip near Goa.

Name the oil refineries located in India

1. Crude oil extracted in the country and imported from foreign countries is to be refined and processed into various products like distillates, kerosene, diesel, lubricants, bitumen etc. in oil refineries.

2. India has at present 12 oil refineries, of which only one refinery namely, Assam oil company located at Digboi is under private sector.

3. The other eleven refineries are under public sector. They are located at
1. Koyali (Gujarat)
2 & 3 Trombay (near Mumbai consist of two plants)
4. Cochin (Kerala)
5. Chennai (Tamilnadu)
6. Vishakapatnam (Andhra Pradesh)
7. Haldia (near Calcutta)
8. Bongaigoan (Assam)
9. Nunmati (near Gauhati)
10. Mathura (Uttar Pradesh)
11. Barauni (Bihar)
12. Digboi (Assam)

What are the facilities required for ship building industry and name the major ship building units

1. Ship building is a branch of heavy engineering industry.

2. The development of ship building industry requires the facilities of
1. deep navigable water
2. a large area of level land close by
3. the nearness to sources of raw materials (iron and steel, wood etc) and
4. cheap and highly skilled technical labour.

3. At present, India has four shipyards. They are
1. Hindustan Ship yard at Vishakapatnam
2. The Garden Reach ship builders and Engineers Ltd at Kolkata.
3. The Cochin shipyard at cochin and
4. The Mazagaon Dock at Mumbai.

What is an industrial region

1. The regions which have a large concentration of one or different types of industries are termed as industrial region.

2. In India, six major industrial regions are identified. They are:-
1. The Hoogly Belt
2. The Mumbai-Poona Belt
3. The Ahmedabad-Baroda Belt
4. The Madurai-Coimbatore-Bangalore region
5. The Chota Nagpur Region
6. The Mathura-Delhi-Saharanpur-Ambala region.

What are the major industrial regions in India

In India six major industrial regions are identified. They are :-
1. The Hoogly Belt
2. The Mumbai-Poona Belt
3. The Ahmedabad-Baroda Belt
4. The Madurai-Coimbatore-Bangalore region
5. The Chota Nagpur Region
6. The Mathura-Delhi Region

10. The Ahmedabad – Baroda Region is considered as one of the major
industrial regions of India

The Ahmedabad – Baroda Region is considered as one of the major industrial regions of India because

1. The region is famous for cotton, textiles, plastics, fertilizers, chemicals and engineering goods on a large scale.
2. The large scale availibity of raw cotton, cheap supply of power and abundant skilled labour are chief advantages of this region.

Extra questions :-

Name the forest based industries

The forest base industries are industries like paper, matches, wood pulp, timber, lac, sports goods, toys, soaps and oils, Ayurvedic herbs and medicines, rubber, beedies, nuts and fruits.

Name some important Agro-based industries

The important agro based industries are textiles, sugar, tobacco, vegetable oil, natural rubber, spices, dairying and leather.

What are the chief raw materials needed for cement industry

The Chief raw materials needed for the cement industry are limestone, dolomite, china clay, gypsum and coal.

Name any four mineral based industries

Iron and Steel, Cement, Fertilisers and chemicals

When and where was the major or first steel plant established

The first and major steel plant was established in 1907 at Jamshedpur.

What are the chief raw materials for Iron and Steel industry

The Chief raw materials for Iron and Steel industry are:- Iron ore, Manganese, Chromite, Coal, Limestone and Dolomite.

What is an industrial region

A region in which one type or different types of industries are concentrated in a locality is called an Industrial region.

Expand the TISCO

TISCO – Tata Iron and Steel Company.

Fill in the blanks :-

1. Silk industry is predominant in Karnataka state.

2. The Mazagaon Dock is located at Mumbai.

3. Important oil refinery in the western coast is Trombay oil refinery.

4. Chota Nagpur industrial region is oftenly compared to Rhur region of west Germany.

5. Most of the steel plants were established under public sector.

6. Maharashtra and Gujarat are the foremost cotton textile manufacturing states in India.

7. Rourkela steel plant was set up with the assistance of Germany.

8. The first cement factory in India was built at Chennai.

9. Limestone is the chief raw material for Cement industry.

10. The biggest oil refinery in India is located at Mathura in Uttar Pradesh.

11. The Durgapur steel plant was established with the assistance of Britain.

12. Durgapur steel plant is located at West Bengal.

13. Jharia is a coal field.

14. Mayurbhanj is a Iron.

15. In Andhra Pradesh iron ore deposits are in the districts of khammam.

16. Bombay High is very famous for the production of petroleum.

17. The leading state in the production of limestone is Tamilnadu.

18. The places where paper mills are located in Andhra Pradesh is Rajahmundry, Sirpur Khagaj Nagar.

19. The state that is leading in paper industry is West Bengal.

20. The first iron and steel plant was set up in India at Jamshedpur.

21. The state leading in the production of sugar is Uttar Pradesh.

22. The first textile mill was started in India in 1818.

23. The Shipyard at Vishakapatnam is called Hindustan Shipyard.

24. The biggest shipyard in India is Hindustan shipyard of Vishakapatnam.

25. The ships for Indian Navy are built at Mazagaon Dock in Mumbai.

26. The Shipyard at cochin was setup with the Japanese collaboration.

27. Cotton Textiles was an ancient industry.

28. Iron and Steel is the key industry of India.

29. Expand TISCO – Tata Iron and Steel Company.

30. New Industrial policy was announced in the year 1991.

31. Major industrial policy is the main aim of Second five year plan.

Match the following :-

a. Bhilai [4] 1. Karnataka

b. Nunmati [3] 2. Ahmedabad

c. The Garden Reach [5] 3. Oil refinery

d. Cotton textiles [2] 4. Chattisgarh

e. Silk Industry [1] 5. Ship building



Why are the means of transport and communication called the ‘life lines’ of a country

1. The transport and communication system may be called the ‘Sinews and life lines’ of a country for its economy and integration.

2. Without adequate means of communication and transport, there can be no development of industry or trade.

3. In a vast country like India, cheap and efficient means of transport is essential for progress and prosperity as well as modernization of the country.

What are the different means of transport

Types of transport :-

There are four types of transport. They are:-
1. Railways
2. Roadways
3. Waterways and
4. Airways.

What are the favourable aspects for the development of rail network

Favourable factors for Rail network :-

1. The development of rail network will be influenced by geographical, economic and political factors.

2. The favourable conditions for railway construction are
a. the plain topography.
b. High density of population
c. Number of urban and trading centres and
d. The productive areas of agriculture, mining and industry.

3. Except the construction of a number of bridges on rivers which involves heavy expenditure, there has not been much difficulty in undertaking the expansion of rail transport in the plains.

4. What are the different gauges for rail transport?

The Indian railways operate mainly in three different gauges. They are:-
1. Broad gauge with a width of 1.69 mts.
2. Metre gauge with a width of 1.00 mts.
3. Narrow gauge with a width of 0.77 mts.

5. Name all the railway zones and their headquarters?

The Indian railways are divided into 15 zones for administrative convenience. The different railway zones and their headquarters are :-

1. Eastern Railway – Kolkata
2. Western Railway – Mumbai
3. Northern Railway – Delhi
4. Southern Railway – Chennai
5. North Eastern Railway – Ghorakhpur
6. North Western Railway – Jaipur
7. South Eastern Railway – Kolkata
8. South Western Railway – Bangalore
9. East Central Railway – Hazipur (Bihar)
10. West Central Railway – Jabalpur (Madhya Pradesh)
11. North Central Railway – Allahabad
12. South Central Railway – Secundarabad
13. Central Railway – Mumbai (Victoria Terminal)
14. Eastern Coastal Railway – Bhuvaneswar
15. North East Frontier Railway – Maligaon in Gauhati (Assam)

6. What are the challenges of Indian railways?

1. The Indian Railways are now being faced with two important operational difficulties. They are:-
1. Electrification and
2. Track conversion

2. In 1988-89, about 73% of the total number of locomotives are steam and diesel and only 27 percent are electric.

3. Due to the limited coal reserves and high petroleum prices, it has been decided to replace steam and diesel engines with electric locomotives.

4. But this transformation takes a quite longer time in view of the fact that the present capacity of electric locomotive manufacture is insufficient and several areas in the country are chronically short of power.

5. Second, with regard to track conversion, the present operation of different gauges has been leading to inconvenience and uneconomical to both passenger and freight traffic.

6. Hence, it is decided to gradually convert the entire metre gauge track into broad gauge track. It also takes a long time and heavy capital input.

7. The narrow gauge lines are confined to only hilly tracts and as such, they do not matter much in the over-all railway economy.

8. It is quite clear that most of the rail tracks are laid between the major ports, cities and trading centres leaving vast stretches of rural areas inaccessible. This gap is also to be rectified in the future.

7. What are the advantages of road transport system?

Roads provide the fundamental and cheap mode of transport in a modern society. The economic advancement and culture of the nation can be assessed with a mere glance of its road map.

When compared with railways, the road transport system has many advantages :-

1. Roads are of considerable significance for passenger and goods traffic in India.

2. Roads are relatively easy to construct and maintain. The investment and establishment are also much lesser than the railways.

3. Road transport is quicker, more convenient and more flexible. It is ideal for short distance travel and movement of goods.

4. Road transport can collect passengers and goods from anywhere and dispose them anywhere.

5. Door to door collection and delivery becomes possible with less cost.

6. In mountainous regions and other hilly terrains, roadways are of immense value as it is almost impossible to construct railways.

7. The roads are particularly advantageous to the farmers to transport their perishable goods and in turn develop markets for their products. They are also helpful for the mobility of farm machinery and agricultural produce from house to field and back.

8. In the vast country like India, it is possible only through roads to connect countless number of towns and villages, factories, farms and mines and even streets and squares.

9. Road transport can be operated very competitively both by public and private undertakings, unlike the railways.

10. Road transport also generates large employment.

8. Name the different types of roads?

Indian roads are classified into
1. National Highways
2. State Highways
3. District roads and
4. Village panchayat roads.

1. National Highways :-

1. National Highways constitute the main frame work of India’s road system.

2. They run through the length and breadth of the country, connecting state capitals, major ports, towns and cities of National importance.

3. Though they constitute less than 2 percent of the total road network but carries nearly 40% road traffic.

2. State Highways :-

1. State Highways are also the main arteries of trade and commerce and passenger transport in the country, connecting every town in the state with its capital, the National Highways and the neighbouring states, capitals and important cities.

2. These are managed by the state government.

3. These roads accounted for 6.2 percent of the total road network in the country.

3. District Roads :-

1. The development and maintenance of district roads fall within the purview of Zilla Parishads.

2. These roads connect the headquarters of the districts with other towns and large villages in the district.

4. Village Roads :-

1. Village roads come under the authority of Mandal and Village panchayats.

2. They are mostly unsurfaced and narrow tracks connecting different villages with one another and also to the nearest district road or state Highways.

9. Which are the states very badly served by roads and which are the states with high density of roads.

a. The states very badly served by roads :-

1. The states which are badly served by roads are in the Himalayas (Jammu & Kashmir, Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Meghalaya and Mizoram), Central India and Western desert (Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat and Rajasthan)

2. All the mountain bounded northern and north-eastern states are witnessed with less length of road network.

b. The states with high density of roads :-

1. Within the country, the highest road length by all types of roads is found in Maharashtra (2,16,733 kms) followed by Kerala, Tamilnadu, Uttar Pradesh, Orissa, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Rajastha.

2. The road density pattern is high in the Southern peninsula consists of Kerala, Tamilnadu, Goa, Maharashtra, Karnataka and Orissa states.

10. Name the International airports.

There are six international airports in India. They are:-

1. Indira Gandhi International airport at Delhi.
2. Sahara International airport at Mumbai.
3. Dum Dum International airport at Kolkata
4. Trivandrum International airport at Thiruvananthapuram.
5. Chennai International airport at Chennai and
6. Rajiv Gandhi International airport at Hyderabad.

International Airports Authority of India (IAAI) manages, operates and develops the above six International airports in India.

11. Explain the significance of air transport?

1. Air Transport is the costliest but the fastest mode of modern transport.

2. It is used for the movement of passengers, perishables and light as well as valuable goods.

3. It is an important means of international transport.

4. Apart from international services, air transport has come to play a key role within the country to connect the great distances and locations with less time and great comfort.

5. Air transport also plays an extremely important role during the times of emergency like wars, floods, epidemics and famines.

12. Name the major sources of waterways in the country?

1. Waterways are of two types.
a. Inland waterways
b. Oceanic transport

2. The inland water ways provide the cheapest form of transport, but their importance has been reduced with the expansion of road and railway networks.

3. Though India is endowed with many big rivers, canals and lakes, the volume of inland navigation is insignificant.

13. Name the different means of communication?

1. The different means of communication are the post, the telegraph, the telephone, the wireless. These are the chief means of communication.

2. Fax and electronic mail (e-mail) have come into use in recent times.

3. At present web and internet services have also become popular with internet facilities.

4. At present SMS services also popular through the mobile communications.


1. What are the advantages of transport?

The main advantages of transport are

1. A well developed transport system maintains cultural coherence, the socio-economic development and sovereignity of the country.

2. It helps the people to make a move from one place to another and thus enhances interaction among the people and the human settlements. It also helps better understanding of the people of other nations and their culture.

3. It helps in the development of agriculture sector through effective distribution of food grains and perishable goods from the producing areas to marketing centres and other destinations of consumption without interruption.

4. It helps in the development of mining and industry. Industrialization essentially requires cheap and effective network of transportation both for the assemblage of all raw materials from different centres to the sites of industrial units and for the distribution of manufactured goods from factory sites to market centres.

5. Cheap and efficient transport system essentially promotes feasible and compatible marketing system and encourages good volume of internal and international trade.

6. Good transport plays a vital role for evolution and promotion of urban and centres and thus increases the urbanization process.

7. It reduces the isolation between villages, regions and countries as well as communities.

8. It helps the daily commuters who are working in different institutions at various capacities for freely moving to take up their jobs very comfortably.

9. The effective and efficiently means of transport play a crucial role in times of national emergency like wars, famines, cyclone and other natural disasters.

10. Good transport means, in fact, are necessary for the very existence of a nation.

2. What are the favourable conditions required for the construction of railways?

1. The favourable conditions for railway construction are:-
a. the plain topography
b. high density of population
c. number of urban and trading centres and
d. the productive areas of agriculture, mining and industry

2. Except the construction of a number of bridges on rivers which involves heavy expenditure, there has not been much difficulty in undertaking the expansion of rail transport in the plains.

3. What are the different channels introduced by department of posts?

1. Taking note of the rapid changes in information and communication technology, the Department of posts has given a new thrust to its programme of modernization for providing new value added services to customer.
2. In this direction,
a. Metro channel service linking the six metros,
b. The Rajadhani channel linking New Delhi with most of state capitals.
c. Business channel with exclusive treatment to pin coded business mail are introduced.
d. The department has also introduced a Green Channel, which gives priority to local mail.
e. In order to speed up money order transmission a project for the use of satellite channels is under implementation.

4. What is Green Channel?

Green channel is one which gives priority to local mail.

Fill in the blanks :-

1. Indian railways are under public sector undertaking.

2. In India, railway network makes a very dense pattern in the areas of North Indian plains.

3. Uttar Pradesh state has the largest rail route length.

4. Door to Door collection and delivery of goods possible in road transport.

5. National Highway – 7 is running from kanyakumari and varanasi.

6. Air transport is the costliest and fastest mode of modern transport.

7. International air services will be run by Air India Limited.

8. The important navigable canal in southern India is Buckingham canal.

9. India has the larges network of post offices in the world.

10. The head quarter of North Eastern railway is Gorakhpur.

11. The head quarter of South Central railway is Secundarabad.

12. The head quarter of South Eastern railway is kolkata.

13. The railway zone with its headquarters at kokalta is South-Eastern railway or Eastern railway.

14. The headquarter of southern railway is at Chennai.

15. First railway line of 34 km was laid between Thane and Mumbai.

16. Except Assam all the North and North Eastern states do possesses very significant length of rail route.

17. In states like Meghalaya and Sikkim we can’t find any semblance of rail network.

18. Two important problems of Indian railway are Electrician and Track conversion.

19. Road transport provide chief mode of transport inn modern societies.

20. BRDB stands for The Border Road Development Board.

21. BRDB constructed world’s largest road at a high elevation from Manali (Himachal Pradesh) to Leh (Jammu & Kashmir).

22. IAAI stands for International Airports Authority of India

23. Inland waterways provide cheapest form of transport.

24. Vijayawada-Chennai railway line has severely affected the important of Buckingham canal.

25. In Kerala, almost all parts and interior land are connected by back waters and rivers.

26. Metro Channel service links six metros.

27. Rajadhani channel link New Delhi and state capitals.

28. Department of tele communication has introduced Green channel which gives priority to Local mail.

29. Indian Railway System is fourth largest system in world.

30. The Buckingham canal connects the two states of Andhra Pradesh and Tamilnadu.

31. Broad guage railway line width is 1.69mts.

Match the following.

1. South-Central Railway [4] 1. Calcutta

2. Back waters [5] 2. Navigation

3. Buckingham [2] 3. Indian posts

4. South-Eastern Railway [1] 4. Secunderabad

5. Green channel [3] 5. Kerala