Civics – INDIA AS A NATION

UNIT-I

INDIA AS A NATION

  1. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS:

1. How do you describe India as a multi-cultural society?

Ans.    India is a vast country with great diversity. It is a large multilingual, multi religious and multicultural society. It is often called a sub-continent. The great scholars who studied Indian society described India as a wonder.

  1. In terms of population, India is the second largest country in the world. According to 1996, India’s population stood at 96 crores. By the year 2001, the population of India has crossed 102.7 crores.
  2. India is a multi-lingual nation. The fact that as many as 1652 languages and dialects are spoken in India is a proof of the country’s amazing diversity. Nine out of the 30 largest languages spoken in the world are in India.
  3. Indian constitution recognises 22 languages as statutory. They are: Assamese, Bengali, Bodo, Dogri, Gujarathi, Hindi, Kannada, Kashmiri, Konkani, Maithili, Malayalam, Manipuri, Marathi, Nepali, Oriya, Punjabi, Sanskrit, Santali, Sindhi, Tamil, Telugu and Urdu. Some of these are official languages in the states. At the country’s level, Hindi is the official language.
  4. India is a union of some very large states. There are at present 28 States and 7 Union Territories. Union Territories are directly administered by the Central Government.
  5. In terms of area, Rajasthan is as big as Italy and Andhra Pradesh is twice that of Bangladesh.
  6. India is a land of multiple tradition and many religions. Hindus account for about 82 percent of the total population. Muslims constitute about 12 percent, Christians 2.4 percent, Sikhs 2 percent, and Buddhists and Jains less than one percent each
  7. There are diverse caste groups in the country. As many as 6,748 castes are there in the country. People of these castes follow diverse traditions, customs and practices.
  8. In the term of area also, India is the seventh largest country in the world. It occupies a total geographical area of 3.28 million km. of the globe.

In view of this diversity, India is called a multi-lingual, multi-religious, multi-caste and multi-cultural society.

2. How is India committed to democracy?

Ans.    Democracy :

  1. When Britishers transferred power to the Indian leaders a democratic form of government was chosen.
  2. In democracy, there is no place for Kings and Queens; no special privileges to the nobles, jagirdars, zamindars, pettandars etc and no place for an autocratic form of government.
  3. In India, the supreme power rests with the people. They exercise this power through a system of representation with periodically held free elections.
  4. Certain political rights such as freedom of belief, speech, expression and association are guaranteed to the people by the Indian Constitution. These are called ‘Fundamental Rights’.
  5. For safeguarding the fundamental rights a special right called the Right to Constitutional Remedies, is also guaranteed by the constitution.
  6. Every adult citizen of 18 years and above has the right to vote, i.e. right to choose, the representatives.
  7. The principles of political equality is assured in the rule ‘one person one vote’ and ‘one vote one value’. Any citizen is eligible to contest for any political office.
  8. India is committed to conduct its government on the basis of rule of l
  9. Its main features are:-
    1. All persons are subjected to the same laws which are administered by ordinary courts.
    2. The law is superior to the rulers.
  • No person can be made to suffer except for a breach of law and according to the procedure laid down in the law and
  1. There are no special privileges in favour of any individual.

3. What is Secularism? How is India committed to it?

Ans.    Secularism:

Secularism means that the religion or religious considerations should not enter in the functioning of the State (or)

Delinking of the state from religious matters is known as Secularism. We call this one “Dharmanirapekshata”.

Secularism in India:

India is a multi-religious country. Hence, Secularism is highly essential to promote religious tolerance and the spirit of Nation Unity. The following points prove that India is a Secular State.

  1. The State does not make the tenets of any religion as the basis for its legislation, policies and programmes.
  2. The State does not interfere with the religious matters of the people.
  3. Every citizen has a right to follow or not to follow any religion.
  4. One cannot propagate religious beliefs in a way to disturb social harmony and peace.
  5. No religious instruction can be imparted in any educational institution maintained out of public funds.
  6. No political party shall use religion or religious symbols in election campaign.
  7. What is Social Justice? What are the ways and means to achieve social justice in India?

Ans.    Social Justice:

  1. Social Justice means giving due place and share to the people who were deprived, discriminated and oppressed for centuries.
  2. It also means redistribution of social wealth, in such a way as to provide the basic needs, such as food, clothing, shelter, water, health and education to all the people; to alleviate poverty; and to enable the poorer sections and backward classes to lead a dignified human life.

4. Ways and means to achieve social justice in India:-

  1. Untouchability has been abolished. The practice of untouchability is considered a crime.
  2. No discrimination on the basis of religion, caste or gender shall be shown
  3. The most important device to promote social justice in India has been the provision of reservations in favour of the historically backward and depressed castes in our society.
  4. Reservations are provided in education, employment and representative political bodies.
  5. Governments at various levels also implement special programmes meant for the welfare of these backward sections of our society.
  6. Agrarian reforms were carried out.
  7. Zamindari system was abolished.
  8. Peasants were given ownership rights.
  9. Laws were made to curb the growth of concentration of wealth in the hands of monopoly houses.
  10. The state in India is committed to provide the basic needs to the people.
  11. Rural development programmes aim at alleviation of poverty and creation of employment for the poor and landless in villages.

5. Describe briefly the factors that contribute to the promotion of national integration?

Ans.    National Integration:-

  1. National Integration means bringing together different groups of people into a whole through a free and equal association. It involves the promotion of a sense of belonging to the nation.
  2. Apart from political integration it also means social, economic and cultural integration.

Factors to promote National Integration:

The Historical legacy:-

  1. National Integration means bringing together different groups of people into a whole through a free and equal association. It involves the promotion of a sense of belonging to the nation.
  2. Apart from political integration it also means social, economic and cultural integration.

Factors to promote National Integration:-

The Historical legacy:-

  1. India was the cradle civilization in the ancient times.
  2. India is the house of many religions, varied cultures and different civilizations
  3. The Vedas, the Upanishads and the great epics influenced the Indian culture and civilization
  4. In the ancient times this land was known as ‘Bharata Varsha.’
  5. The Muslim conquerors called it ‘Hindustan’. They applied the term Hind (Sind) to all the land around and beyond Sindhu river.
  6. The British rules called this land ‘India’, after the river ‘Indus’, as was popularized by the European travelers for a long time.
  7. This historical legacy is an important factor in the promotion of national integration

2. Federalism:-

  1. A true federal framework would help to strengthen the bonds between different nationalities in India.
  2. The Indian constitution also provides a framework for building a strong federal India.
  3. The government power is divided and distributed between the Central government and the State government. Both derive their authority directly from the constitution.
  4. Problems among the states or between the states and the Union government are sought to be resolved through various forums such as National Development Council and Chief Ministers Conferences. Today we call this ‘Co-operative Federalism’.
  5. If federal principles are democratically applied they can really promote national integration and defuse the forces of disintegration

3. Political Parties:-

1. Political parties are another source for promoting national integration.

  1. They recruit members from different casts, tribes, religions  and regions.
  2. They mobilise people on common issues.
  3.    They want strong states to make India stronger

4. Removal of social  barrier

1. National integration is essentially social and cultural integration.

2. To attain such integration the barriers of religious, caste and other inequalities, discrimination and prejudice should disappear.

3. Over the centuries Indian people have learnt to live together.

4. This is a great asset for national integration.

5. Some institutional Arrangements:-

1. We have some institutional arrangements in India which promote national unity. They are,
a. There is only one constitution for the whole country.
b. The states have no separate constitutions
c. We have single citizenship
d. Civil and Criminal law is uniform throughout the country.

2. All India Public Services such as the Indian Administrative Service (IAS) and the Indian Police Service (IPS) are intended to ensure uniform standards in administration.

II. Answer the following:-

1. Name the Statutory languages as recognised by the constitution of India?

Ans. The Indian constitution recognizes 22 languages as statutory. They are,

1. Assamese,
2. Bengali
3. Bodo,
4. Dogri,
5. Gujarati,
6. Hindi,
7. Kannada
8. Kashmiri,
9. Konkani,
10. Maithili,
11. Malayalam,
12. Manipuri,
13. Marathi,
14. Nepali,
15. Oriya,
16. Punjabi,
17. Sanskrit,
18. Santali,
19. Sindhi,
20. Tamil,
21. Telugu, and
22. Urdu.

2. What is the meaning of rule of law?

Ans. Rule of Law:-

India is committed to conduct its government on the basis of rule of law. Running the government based on the law and acts prepared is known as ‘Rule of law’.

1. In Indian democracy all citizens are equal.

2. The law does not recognize any special privilege based on birth or wealth.

3. All have equal rights to participate in politics and contest for any political office.

4. All persons are subjected to the same laws which are administrated by ordinary courts.

5. The law is superior to the rulers.

6. No person can be made to suffer except for a breach of law and according to the procedure laid down in the law.

7. There are no special privileges in favour of any individual.

3. Give the two meanings of Secularism?
Secularism :-

Ans.

1. Secularism means that the religion or religious considerations should not enter in the functioning of the state. we call this ‘dharmanirapekshata’
2. In India, there is no state religion. The state does not make the tenets of any religion as the basis for its legislation, policies and programmes.
3. Secularism in the Indian context implies tolerance towards others beliefs and faiths.

4. What is Federalism?

Ans. Federalism:-

1. A true federal framework would help to strengthen the bonds between different nationalities in India.

2. The Indian constitution provides a framework for building a strong federal India.

3. The governmental power is divided and distributed between the central government and the state governments.

4. Both derive their authority directly from the constitution.

5. Problems among the states or between the states and Union government are sought to be resolved through various forums such as National Development Council and Chief Minister conferences. Today we call this ‘Co-operative federalism’.

6. If federal principles are democratically applied they can really promote national integration and defuse the forces of disintegration.

5. How do political parties promote national integration?

Ans. 1. Political parties are another source for promoting national integration.

2. They recruit members from different castes, tribes, religions and regions.

3. They mobilise people on common issues .

4. The nation level parties have party organisations in different states. Even most of the regional or state parties in India have a national outlook.

5. They want strong states to make India stronger.

III. Fill in the blanks:-

1. The rank of Telugu among the major languages of the world is Sixteen

2. Twenty Two languages are recognised as statutory.

3. 28 states are there in India at present.

4. India’s constitution was adopted in the year 1949.

5. A right that safeguards Fundamental Rights is known as Right to Constitutional Remedies.

6. At 18 years of age an Indian gets the right to vote.

7. When every individual is considered equal before law it is known as Rule of law.

8. Delinking of the state from religious matters is known as secularism.

9. Reservation is an important device to promote social justice.

10. The process of national integration in India is characterised by the phrase unity in diversity.

11. Religion that preached equality of people in ancient India is Buddhism.

12. IAS stands for Indian Administrative Service.

13. The Indian constitution came into force in 1950.

14 India was partitioned in 1947 on the basis of religion.

15. The language which is not recognized by the Indian Constitution is English.

16. IPS Stands for Indian Police Service.

18. The process of National Integration in India was Characterized by the slogan Unity in Diversity.

19. Division of powers between the centre and the state Governments is an important features of Federal Government .

20. The system of Government of India is Parliamentary.

Civics – INDIAN DEMOCRACY