IMPERIALISM

IMPERIALISM

What were the factors responsible for the rise of Imperialism

Ans. The following factors were responsible for the rise of Imperialism.

Search of raw materials:-

1. The requirements of modern industries led to enormously increased demands
for raw materials of the tropical countries.

2. The value of colonies has increased as source of supply of raw materials.

3. Africa and Asia offered many of the raw materials needed by European
factories such as cotton, silk, rubber, vegetable-oils and minerals.

Search for markets:-

1. Britain, Germany, France, Belgium and other nations in Europe started to
produce surplus goods such as textiles, machinery and hardware.

2. So, they wanted markets abroad due to increasing saturation of European
markets.

3. This factor forced them to undertake political conquests of undeveloped
countries in Asia and Africa.

Political Factors:-

1. Politically as some of the Nations with far flung empires needed the naval bases and coaling stations.

2. The European nations came to realize that the colonies might act as military
bases.

3. They thought that the colonies would reflect the glory of the mother country.

National Pride:-

1. Countries such as Italy and Germany had the spirit and hunger for national
pride and this supplied a very strong incentives to colonial expansion.

2. Due to bright national pride they wanted to establish their status as world
powers.
Expanding Population:-

1. Economic distress and periodical recurrence of unemployment led millions of
Europeans to migrate from Europe to find new homes and careers abroad.

Desire to spread Christianity:-

1. The Christian missionaries in European nations desired to rise the civilization
of backward people and teach them principles of health and sanitation.

2. Thus, they wanted to spread their religion in all parts of the world.

3. This led the Europeans to occupy many countries.

Bring out the way how Africa was colonized by the European powers

Ans. 1. Though Africa is very close to Europe, it was regarded as “Dark continent”
and was not colonized by the Europeans during the early days of Imperialism.

2. King Leopold-II of Belgium convened a conference of European countries. In
1879 to discuss the question of exploration, the civilization and trade and
commerce.

3. He sent Stanley on behalf of Belgium. Stanley made several treaties and Congo
become the first colony of Belgium.

4. Portugal established her hold over Angola. She occupied East Africa or
Mozambique.

5. Italy occupied Somaliland and Tripoli along with Cyrenovica. She annexed
Abyssinia also.

6. France occupied Algeria and Tunisia.

7. France wanted to occupy East Africa also but at the same time England had
entered into East Africa. So, both England and France entered into an
agreement in 1899. By this agreement France had taken Morocco and occupied
French Congo, Senegal, and Ivory coast, England got Egypt.

8. Later, Germany acquired Cameroon and Togoland. Thus, the colonization of Africa was completed.

How did Europeans succeed in colonizing china and gain spheres of influence over China
Ans. 1. In the opening of the modern period, China remained isolated. And believed that they possessed everything they needed and they did not like to have any relations with the rest of the world.

2. But, the products of China like tea, silk, textiles and porcelain were in great
demand in Europe. So, European nations wanted to establish trade relations with China.

3. When the British ambassador was sent by the Crown to establish trade links
with China in 1796, Ch’ien-lung, the then Chinese emperor was refused.

4 The European countries took advantage of the military and industrial backwardness of China and established secret trade relations.

5. The East India Company smuggled Opium to China. This resulted in two
opium wars between China and England in which China was defeated. China gave trade agreements to England as a result.

6. Chinese commerce fell into the hands of Europeans. Chinese government was
made to accept the settlement of foreigners in Peking.

7. Slowly all big powers of the world established their colonies in China.

8 Finally, China was parceled out amongst big powers, which is referred to popularly known as “The Cutting of Chinese Melon”.

Thus, the colonization of China was completed.

What are the forms and methods of Imperialism

Ans. Forms of Imperialism:-
Forms of Imperialism includes economic exploitation, racial domination and cultural supremacy.

1. Economic Exploitation:-

1. The powerful European nations with their military might occupied the weak countries in Africa and Asia to get raw materials.
2. The natural and mineral resources of these colonies were exploited by the European nations.

2. Ideological Factor:-

1. The another form of Imperialism was the Ideological one.

2. Imperial countries spread an Ideology behind their acquiring large scale colonial empires in Asia and Africa as the “Whiteman’s Burden” for offering civilization to backward people.

3. Cultural domination:-

1. The culturally developed European nations wanted to introduce their religion, culture and civilization in highly backward colonies.

Methods of Imperialism:-
Such methods vary from peaceful practices to more forceful measures to outright violence.

1. Peaceful practices such as financial and economic transactions, cultural activities, diplomatic agreements.

2. Forceful methods include bribery, economic sanctions, military and intimidation.

3. Outright violence, varying from temporary show of arms to actual conquest and permanent colonisation.

1. Opium War:-

1. An extremely harmful drug, opium grown in India was smuggled into China by the East India Company.

2. The Chinese were addicted to this dangerous drug. A lucrative trade had grown during 18th century.

3. Chinese government alarmed at the effects of this drug on the health of its people and prohibited its import into the country.

4. Inspite of these measures taken by the Chinese government due to the corrupt customs officials of Chinese government, the trade in opium continued.

5. The government seized 20,000 chests of Opium and destroyed them.
6. Thus, began a conflict between China and England. This resulted in the famous opium wars of 1839-42 and 1857-58.

7. After the defeat of China in the Second Opium war, China was forced to sign a treaty called treaty of ‘Tientsin’, by which, opium trade was to be recognized by China.

Results
1. China was defeated.
2. It recognized and allowed opium trade.
3. Chinese agreed to the settlement of foreigners also in its capital, Peking.

2. Anglo-French rivalry in India and Africa:-

a. Anglo-French rivalry in India:-

1. French and English entered into conflicts over the supremacy of trade in India and they fought wars indirectly by taking sides in the internal political conflicts of the native states.

2. Each hoped to get special privileges against the other from the native princes for their support in the war.

3. Finally, the English succeeded in getting control over the Indian trade.

b. Anglo-French rivalry in Africa:-

1. France sent expeditions and at the same time English also arrived in East Africa.

2. By a compromise, both English and French entered into an agreement in 1899 and by this agreement France was given Morocco, and English got Egypt.

3. White Man’s Burden:-

1. The Europeans considered themselves as civilized and the people of Asia, and Africa as barbarians.

2. For that they spread an ideology that reasons behind their acquiring of large scale colonial empires in Asia and Africa as the ‘White Man’s Burden’ for offering civilization to the backward people.

4. Resources in Indonesian Islands that attracted Europeans:-

1. The region now called Indonesia, is an archipelago consisting of Sumatra, Java, Bali & Celebes etc.

2. It produces a remarkable portion of world’s output of cane-sugar, coffee, quinine, palm-oil, rubber and rope-fibers.

3. Oil, tin an Bauxite are also available in plenty.

4. It was the lure of the lucrative trade in spices that attracted the Europeans to the Islands of Indonesia.

5. Invasion of China by Japan in 1894-95:-

1. Japan invaded China during 1894-95, because China tried to interfere in the internal affairs of Korea, which was to the dislike of Japan.

2. So Japan defeated China and was made to sign a treaty and was compelled to cede lot of Chinese territories.

3. Russia, France and Germany who had their own interests in China came to the rescue of China and all of them forced Japan to yield and was made to restore to China and finally china was parceled out amongst the big powers, which is referred to popularly as, “the cutting of Chinese Melon”.

 

Explain about the “Cutting of Chinese Melon”.

Ans. Cutting of Chinese Melon:-

1. The European powers which intervened on behalf of China against Japanese attack into China, had personnel motives.

2. They developed spheres of influence in China. Finally China was parceled out amongst the big powers which is referred to popularly as “The Cutting of Chinese Melon”.

What is Imperialism

Ans. It is a form of exploitation of one nation by another in which we can see the political conquest of a country by another first and followed by economic plunder.

What were the factors behind Imperialism

Ans. The main reason behind colonial expansion were greed for cheap raw materials, markets, goods, investments and fresh fields for exploitation.

Why was India called as a classical colony of British

Ans. India was exploited to the maximum of its material and human resources so much. So that India was called the “Classic Colony” of British.

What is n Archipelago? Why is Indonesia called an Archipelago

Ans. An archipelago is a group of islands. Indonesia is an archipelago consisting of Sumatra, Java, Bali & Borneo etc.

What was said to be the “White Man’s Burden”

Ans. Offering civilization to backward people in the acquitted colonies was said to be the ‘White Man’s Burden’.

Who were Boers

Ans. The Dutch people who settled in cape colony in South Africa were known as Boers.

Who were Outlanders? Who was their leaders

Ans. The English people who settled in Transvaal after 1881 were called Outlanders. The leader of Outlanders was Cecil Rhodes.

What were the two important consequences of colonization of Africa

Ans. 1. It brought Apartheid and racial discrimination.

2. In the greed for acquiring sphees of influence and building colonies, the European countries developed suspicion and hatred against one another which led to conflicts.

Fill in the blanks:-

1. British conquered Transvaal in 1879.

2. Congo was discovered by Cameron.

3. Indonesia was the colony of Dutch.

4. Lenin said Imperialism was the highest stage of Capitalism.

5. The main source of Imperialism was Industrial Revolution.

6. Opium war was fought between England and China.

7. The Sovereign of Congo was King Leopold-II.

8. The continent Africa was regarded as Dark Continent.

9. Africa was discovered by Livingston in 1840.

10. The European Country which held monopoly over the Indian trade during the 16th century was Portugal

11. Ismail Pasha sold in his Suez and shares to England and France.

12. The King who concerned a conference of all European states in 1879 to discuss the issue to exploration of Africa was King Leopold-II.

13. In Boers revolt against England, the other European power who showed sympathy with Boers was Germany.

14. The European power to gain the final control over Indonesia was Dutch.

15. The great Britain lost her 13 colonies of America in 1783.

16. Brazil secured independence from Portugal in 1822.

17. Cameron was sent by the royal geographical society for the exploration of Africa.

18. Livingston discovered the regions of Tanganyika and Nyassa.

19. India was the first Asian country to fall prey to the Europeans.

20. Battle of Buxar took place in India in 1764.

21. Since 1644 the ruling dynasty in China was Manchu.

22. The Second Opium war ended with the treaty of Tienstin.

23. The China, Japanese war took place in 1894-95.

24. The partition of China amongst Europeans was known as the cutting of Chinese Melon.

25. In 1798, Ceylon was colonized by England.

26. The Chinese emperor was regarded as Sun of Heaven.

27. Indonesia is an Archipelago.

28. Punjab was annexed in 1849 by the British.

29. Egypt became a colony of the British.

30. Great Britain lost her 13 colonies of America of 1783.

31. In South America the Dutch people are known Boers.

32. The country predominant in colonization England

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