FREEDOM MOVEMENT OF INDIA
1. Bring put the factors that contributed to the growth of National consciousness of India
The following factors that contribute to the growth of National consciousness in India are:-
1. The introduction of English education produced a class of Indians who imbibed western ideas of liberty, democracy, fraternity and equality. It was from among these class of educated Indians that the spirit of nationalism grew.
2. The Britishers achieved political and administrative unification if India. It made Indians united and provided them with common interests and common problems against an alien rule.
3. The economic exploitation of India by the British affected artisans, peasants, petty business man and manufactures. It brought about discontent among different sections of India.
4. The socio religious reform movements made Indians understand the abuses in their society and inspired them for reform. The reformers tried to free India from religious dogmas and blind faith and to build up national unity.
5. The development of transport and communications helped Indians in coming together.
6. From the second half of the 19th Century the Indian press began to develop. It playing a prominent role in arousing national consciousness among Indians.
7. Besides, there were some early political associations which generated awareness among the people. These associations finally led to the birth of Indian National Congress in 1885.
What are the aims, objectives and achievements of Moderate Nationalists
Moderate phase (1885-1905):-
1. During the modern phase, the National leaders adopted methods such as holding meetings, passing resolutions, sending petitions and expressing protests.
2. It was due to moderate methods adopted by them that this phase is called the moderate phase of Indian National Movement.
3. The most prominent leaders of this phase were Gopalakrishna Gokhale, Ferozshah Mehta, Dadabhai Naoroji, W.C Banerjee and others.
The main demands were
1. To establish representative bodies.
2. To abolish Indian council.
3. To grant individual liberty.
4. To enhance import duties on foreign goods.
5. To reduce military expenditure.
6. To separate judiciary from the executive.
7. To reduce land revenue and
8. To aid Indian industries.
1. The moderates could educate the people the way the Indian wealth was being drained away by the British.
2. A powerful swadeshi campaign was organized during which students joined the movement which led to the growth of National consciousness in India.
3. With the passing of new Indian Council Act in 1892, the non-official members were increased and they got right to speak on the budget.
Discuss Vandemataram Movement in India and its significance in the National movement.
1. The Vandemataram Movement was launched in response to the partition of Bengal in 1905 by Lord curzon.
2. Swadeshi and Boycott were also organised as a part of this movement.
3. An Anti-partition movement was initiated on 7th August 1905. The Anti-partition movement included nationalists raising the slogan of ‘Vandemataram’.
4. This slogan was actually a part of Bankim Chandra Chaterjee’s hymn to the Mother land. The hymn began with Bandemataram. It became a stirring call of patriotism and self – sacrifice.
5. The partition of Bengal took effect on 16th October 1905. The leaders declared that day as the day of National Mourning.
6. There was hartal in Calcutta, people walked barefoot and bathed in Ganga and from there they moved on to the streets raising the cried of Bandemataram, which over night became the National song of Bengal.
7. Mass meetings were organised where swadeshi or use of Indian goods and boycott of British goods were proclaimed.
8. Many students were expelled from schools and colleges Many were beaten up by police in 1907, Lajpat Rai and Ajit singh were deported, Tilak was arrested and was given savage punishmet of ‘six years imprisonment’.
9. Students in schools and colleges took very active part in the swadeshi and Boycott movement.
10. The extremist movement could not survive long with the arrest of the main leader, Tilak and retirement of Bipin Chandrapal and Aurobindo Ghosh.
11. Thus the partition of Bengal was cancelled and the capital was shifted from Calcutta to Delhi.
4. Explain Gandhiji’s early political activities in India and how was he accepted as the leader in Indian politics
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhiji is called the father of Nation. He was the only leader of the congress party from 1920 to 1947. This dynamic leadership brought India Independence his achievements were:-
1. In 1915, when Gandhiji return to India from South Africa, he decided first to study the conditions of India before deciding the field of his work.
2. He founded the Sabarmati Ashram at Ahmedabad in 1916 to teach his follower the ideas of truth and non-violence.
3. He called the peasants of champaran in Bihar against Tinkathia. He got success in the abolishing the system of Tinkathia and attracted several young nationalists.
4. Then in 1919 he was arosed by Rowlatt act and Jallian walabagh tragedy.
5. Later in 1920, Gandhiji suggested to Khilafat committee to adopt a programme of non-violence and non – cooperation protest against the government behaviour.
6. In 1927, he gave a call to boycott Simon commission’s visit.
7. In 1930, he led Dandi March as his salt Satyagraha. It was the civil disobedience movement.
8. He entered into a pact with the viceroy Irwin in 1930, so, he attended the second round table conference which was held at London.
9. in 1942, he started Quit India movement. He encouraged all the Indians with the slogan “Do or Die”.
10. He worked for the upliftment of Harijans. His Swadeshi Movement was to encourage the Indian industries and to boycott foreign goods.
11. He won independence for India. India got freedom on 15th August 1947.
12. In this way with his strong and courageous activities in India he was accepted as the great leader in Indian politics.
13. Unfortunately, he did not live long. He was shot dead in 1948.
5. Write an account of non-cooperation movement in India.
1. In 1919, the Jallianwalabagh massacre took place in India and Khalifat was humiliated in Turkey by the British.
2. As a result, the people of India, especially muslims were indignant on the British.
3. Under such circumstances, the congress met at kolkata in September 1920 at Chalked out the programme of non-cooperation.
4. Later, the congress met at Nagpur in December 1920 and decided to launch the movement.
5. Gandhiji was authorised to organise the movement.
6. The non cooperation movement including boycott of government school and courts and resignation of government jobs, surrender of titles and non payment of taxes. By 1922 the British movement had become total success.
7. At that time on 5th February 1922, Violence broke out at chauri chaura in Uttar Pradesh in which 22 police man were burnt alive by the people.
8. This incident convinced Gandhiji that people had not properly understood the concept of non violence. So, he called off the movement.
9. The withdrawal of the movement dissolutioned the people.
10. Differences occurred in the congress. It led to the birth of the Swaraj Party.
11. Gandhiji and other leaders were arrested.
1. Home Rule Movement:-
1. Home Rule Movement is an agitation demanding for self government.
2. There were, two Home Rule Leagues were started in 1915 – 1916.
3. One league was started under the leadership of Lokmanya Tilak and the other under the leadership of Annie Beasant.
4. The two Home Rule Leagues carried out intensive propaganda all over the country in favour of the demand for the grant of Home Rule or Self – government in India after the war.
5. Annie Beasant was an Irish lady and she had come to India in 1893 to work for the Theosophical society.
6. In 1914, she decided to enlarge the sphere of her activities, to include building up of a movement for home rule on the lines of the Irish Home Rule League.
7. About 200 branches of Home Rule League were established and by 1917, her league had about 7000 members. She was supported by her followers. G.S.Arundale, C.P. Ramaswamy Iyer and B.P.Wadia.
8. Tilak organized his home rule activities in Maharashtra and central provinces.
9. The main work undertaken by home rule leagues was to promote political education, organise classes for students on politics, print and circulate pamphlets and collection of funds.
10. During 1918, however several factors diffused the energies of Home Rule, and gradually it got dissolved.
2. Partition of Bengal:-
1. The province of Bengal consisted the present Bengal, Assam, Bihar and Orissa states.
2. Lord curzon divided the province of Bengal into two parts in 1905. Eastern Bengal and Assam as one province and rest of Bengal as another province.
3. It was said that the existing Bengal was too weak to be effectively administrated by single provincial government.
4. But the actual motive was to stem the rising tide to nationalism in Bengal.
5. An anti-partition movement was initiated by congress extremists.
6. The movement included the nationalists rising the slogan of ‘Vandemataram’.
3. Jallian Walabagh Massacre:-
1. People of Punjab decided to have a meeting to protest against the Rowlatt Act of 1919.
2. The arrest of two popular leaders Dr. Satyapal and Dr. Saifuddin Kitchlu resulted in a mob fury at Amritsar.
3. There was a police firing on the mob ,where some officials were also killed and two British women seriously injured.
4. The very next day the people had gathered in large numbers on 13 April 1919 at Amritsar in Jallianwalabagh, to protest against the British.
5. Jallianwalabagh was a garden place with large open space enclosed on three sides and there was only one exit.
6. General ‘O’ dyer, the military commander decided to terrorise the people of Amritsar into complete submission.
7. Dyer surrounded the Bagh with his army unit, closed the only exit with his troops and then ordered his men to shoot at the people with rifles and machine guns.
8. They fired till their ammunition was exhausted. About 1000 men were killed and several thousands got wounded.
9. After this massacre, Martial Law was proclaimed throughout Punjab and the people were submitted to most uncivilized atrocities.
4. Khilafat Movement:-
1. After the World War – I, the British had treated Turkey most inhumanly, Turkish sultan was humiliated by abolishing title of Khalifa which he had been holding.
2. Khalifa was the religious head of the Muslims in the entire world.
3. This ill – treatment given to Turkish sultan by the British made muslims rise against British in India.
4. The Indian muslims started Khilafat Movement against British in India.
5. The Indian National Congress supported the Khilafat cuase and thus the World War –I helped bringing Hindus and Muslims closer.
5. Simon Commission:-
1. In 1927, British appointed Simon Commission to enquire into the working of the reforms of 1919 and to suggest further reforms.
2. It consisted of Seven members. There was not Indian member in the Commission.
3. The recommendation of the commission was disappointed. So the Indian boycotted it under the leadership of Motilal Nehru a separate report recommending further reforms were prepared.
4. Indian demanded completely independence.
5. They rosed the slogan ‘Simon go back’.
6. The congress declared poorna swaraj as their main objective.
7. Finally in protest against the British policy. Civil disobedience movement was launched.
6. 1935 Act:-
1. Government of India Act was passed after the Third Round Table Conference held in London during November 1932.
2. The Act provided for the establishment of a new system of Government for provinces on the basis of provincial autonomy and the federation at the centre.
3. The federation was to be based on a union of the provinces of British India and princely states.
4. The congress participated in the election held in 1937 after the passing of 1935 act.
5. The congress formed ministries in six provinces.
7. Indian National Army:-
1. Originally the Indian National Army was conceived by Mohan Singh.
2. He was an Indian Officer of Indian British Army.
3. When the British Army returned from Japan, he did not join the retreating army instead he went to Japan for help.
4. The Indian prisoners of war were handed over to Mohan Singh who tried to recruit them into Indian National Army. They were 40,000 in number.
5. But the real force to INA was added with the joining of Subhash Chandra Bose. He reached Singapore with the help of German and Japanese submarines and set –up headquarters of INA at Rangoon and Singapore.
6. Bose joined Japanese army and began its march towards India.
7. He set up provisional government of free India at Singapore.
8. It was believed that Subhash Chandra Bose died in an air crash on his way to Tokyo.
9. Though INA failed in achieving its goal. It succeeded in holding up the dropping spirits of Nationalists at home. It set up an example of courage and patriotism.
8. Integration of Indian States:-
1. When the British declared independence to India, it is also declared freedom to more than 500 princely states with India and Pakistan.
2. These princely states were outside the British Indian Dominion.
3. British gave to these princely states their own independent decision to chalk out
their future course.
4. They were left free to join either of the states or to remain as separate
5. Almost all princely states except Kashmir, Hyderabad state and Junagadh,
decided to join Indian Union.
6. The Nizam of Hyderabad wanted to remain independent. But Indian
government took to police action. The Nizam’s forces surrendered to the Indian
troops. The Nizam state acceded into Indian Union.
7. The Indian troops occupied Jammu and Kashmir and thus it became a part of
1. Drain Theory:-
1. The grand old man, Dadabhai Naoroji was an associate with INC from its inception.
2. He exposed the exploitative nature of British rule in India.
3. He drew the attention of both Indian and British public to the drain of wealth from India to England. Thus, it resulted in poverty of India.
4. His book “Poverty and Un British rule in India” gives the statistics to prove his thesis.
2. Safety Volve Theory:-
1. A.O.Hume aimed to provide a safety volve or safe outlet to growing discontentment among the educated Indians.
2. By patronising a mild political movement, he hoped to prevent it from taking the shape of a major political movement.
3. The Indian leaders co-operated with Hume as they did not want to rose the official hostility, to their early political efforts.
3. Quit India Movement:-
1. In the Middle of Second World war Gandhiji was convinced of launching a struggle of a mass movement.
2. In August 1942, the congress started the Quit India Movement. There was a country wide agitation against the British.
3. The movement was spearheaded by students, workers and the peasants. Police stations, post offices and railway stations which were considered the symbols of British authority were attacked.
4. Telephone wires were cut and attempts were made to derail trains.
5. Peasants were asked to withhold tax payments.
6. Gandhi gave a Do or Die Slogan by which he meant that either free India or die in the attempt that we should not live to see the perpetuation of Indian slavery.
7. The government followed very repressive methods to suppress the Quit India Movement.
8. The brutal repression succeeded with in a period of six or seven weeks in bringing about cessation of this mass struggle.
4. Round Table Conferences:-
1. British Government summoned the first round table conference of Indian leader in 1930 in London to discuss the Simon commission report But the congress boycotted it.
2. According to Gandhi – Irwin pact, Gandhi went to London to attend second round table conference in 1931. Again the talks failed.
3. The third round table conference was held in 1932 in London.
4. The Government of India Act was passed after this in 1935.
5. Salt Satyagraha:-
1. Gandhiji started civil Disobedience Movement on 12th March, 1930 with his famous Dandi March. This is called Salt Satyagraha in Indian history.
2. Gandhiji demanded removal of tax on salt.
3. Gandhiji along with 78 of his followers walked nearly 200 miles from Sabarmathi Ashram to Dandi, a village on the Gujarat Sea Coast.
4. Gandhi and his followers made salt in violation of the salt laws. Salt Sathyagraha was conducted at several places in India.
1.What were the aims and methods of extremists
1. The main objectives of the Extremists were the attainment of Swaraj or Independence.
2. The methods of the extremists were passive resistance, Non-cooperation with British, promotion of Swadeshi and boycott of foreign goods.
3. The important leaders of the extremist phase were Balagangadhar Tilak, Lala lajpati Rai, Bipinchandrpal and Aurobindo Ghosh.
2.How was the Indian congress started
1. The national awakening resulted in the founding of Indian Nation Congress in 1885.
2. The retired British Civil Servant, A.O.Hume, took the Initiative and formed the Indian National Congress and its first session.
3. 72 delegates from different parts of the country attended the meeting.
4. It was presided over by WC Banerjee.
3. Mount Batten Plan:-
1. Lord Bount Batten was the last governor general of India.
2. He put up his plan in June 1947. It included partition of India.
4. What is meaning of Rowlatt Act
Rowlatt act means to imprison any person without trial and conviction
Fill in the blanks:-
1. Dyarchy was introduced at the provinces under 1919.
2. Provincial autonomy was introduced by 1935 Act.
3. The Chairman of the constitution – drafting committee for India was
4. Potti Sreeramulu sacrificed his life in the struggle for creation of separate
5. The state that was incorporated into Indian Union through police action was
Hyderabad or Nizam
6. The Quit India Movement was started in the Year 1942.
7. The Slogan Do or Dir was given by Ganghi.
8.The British Governor General Willam Bentick abolished sati in India.
9. Home Rule Movement was started by Annie Besant and Tilak.
10. 1909 Indian council Act is also called Minto – Marley reforms.
11. Annie Besant belongs to Ireland.
12. The first president of Indian National congress was W.C.Benarjee.
13. The partition of Bengal was conducted by Lord Curzon.
14. General ‘O’ Dyer was the Main responsible for the Jallianwalabagh Bagh
15. The leader of the Indian National Army was Subhash Chandra Bose.
16. The Hindu and Swadeshi Mitra were started by G.Subramanyam Iyer.
17. The Vandemataram Movement was launched against the partition of Bengal.
18. Swadeshi and Boycott movement was main instrument in Vademataram
19. The grand old man of India was Dadabhai Naoroji.
20. The drain theory was proposed by Dadabhai Nauruji.
21.The Muslim league was founded in 1906.
22. The Swaraj party was founded by C.R.Das and Motilal Nehru.
23. In 1866 Dadabai Nouroji organized the first Indian political association.
24.Great master of Indian Medical science was Charaka
Match the following:-
1. Amrith Bazar patriks [d] a. Indian National Congress.
2. Kesari [e] b. Jallian Wala Bagh Massacre.
3. A.O.Hume [a] c. Quit India Movement.
4. General ‘O’ Dyer [b] d. Sisir Kumar Ghosh.
5. “Do or Die” [c] e. Bala Gangadhara Tilak