CULTURAL HERITAGE OF INDIA AND INTELLECTUAL AWAKENING

 

1. Give an account on the factors contributing for the cultural unity of India.

1. India is a land with several races, religions and languages. Despite these diversities, India has the cultural unity and had never lost the Ideal of unity.

2. From times immemorial, Indian unity has found its expression in the thoughts of our sages and poets. The entire country was referred to as Bharatavarsha.

3. All Indians regard the epics Ramayana and Mahabharata as very sacred and read them with much devotion.

4. Sanskrit is regarded as very Ancient Native Indian Language and has fostered the unity of the country.

5. At other times the languages like Persian, and Hindi, also helped in fostering unity among the Indians. These languages served as court languages and the administration was carried out in these languages.

6. Certain rites and functions performed at various stages of life by every Indian, are based on common tradition and culture.

7. Indian considers the places such as Kashi, Haridwar, Tirupathi, Rameswaram, Dwaraka and Jagannathapuri as very holy and sacred.

8. People of all religions celebrate certain festivals such as Deepavali, Dasara, Ramzan, Christmas and they help promoting cultural harmony.

9. Indian considers rivers such as Ganga, Yamuna, Krishna, Narmada, Godavari and Kaveri as very holy and they look at them with great devotion and respect.

10. On account of all these common practices and beliefs, India has been maintaining its cultural unity which stands as a unique feature in the world.

2. Write about the Influence of Islam on India.

1. On account of Muslim rule in India, Hinduism was influenced by Islam.

2. The Monotheist principles, worship without rituals and idols (Nirguna worship) and the elements of social equality found in Islam have made profound impact on Hindu religion.

3. It was on account of Islamic influence on Hindus during the Muslim rule that we find reformation in certain aspects of Hindu religion.

4. An account of this, Bhakti movement began in India. As a result the society was divided into Hindus and Muslims.

5. The co-existence of Hindus and Muslims led to the Hindustan way of life.

6. The combination of language like Hindi, Sanskrit, Persian and Arabic gave birth to a new language called Urdu.

7. The music traditions of Hindus and Muslims culminated in a new form of music known as ‘Hindustani Music’.

8. Muslims appointed Hindu architecture in the construction of their structures. So, that Hindu tradition of art entered into Muslim art.

9. This gave birth to Indo-Islamic or Indo-Saracenic style of architecture.

3. What is the nature of the Impact of British rule in India

1. British came to India for trade, but by force of circumstances the traders became rulers.

2. British rule had a great economic impact over India.

3. The economic policies of British in India helped the promotion of British Industries, Capitalists and Merchants.

4. They transformed the Indian economy to suit the British interests. The economic policies of British in India were not similar throughout their rule.

5. The Indian agriculture was transformed into a commercial agriculture. They forced peasants to grow commercial crops in the place of food crops.

6. When the cheap industrial manufacturers from Britain Flooded the Indian Markets, the native Industries died out, and artisans in the cottage industries lost employment.

7. The British also increased the revenue rates from peasants. The high rate of inputs for the commercial agriculture and the heavy revenue led to the indebtedness among the peasants.

8. The production of commercial crops in the place of food crops led to food shortage and scarcity of food led to severe famines.

9. The political and administrative unity of India was achieved by the British.

4. Give an account of the Revolt of 1857.

1. Indian people resist British Rule from the very early stages till 1857. There was no year without any revolt in India in some part of the country or other.

2. The process of conquest of India and the consolidation of British rule has given rise to serious discontentment and resentment among the people of India.

3. Following of traditional opposition to British rule came with the revolt of 1857 in which millions of peasants, artisans and soldiers were participated.

4. The revolt began with a mutiny of sepoys in which the deposed princes of native states joined hands due to the panic created by Annexationist policies of Dalhousie.

5. The sepoys revolted because of discrimination meted out to them by British. The Indian sepoys were paid low salaries and were considered as inferior creatures by the British officers.

6. The spark for mutiny was provided by the episode of the greased cartridges.

7. The cartridges of the new Enfield had a greased paper cover whose end had to be bitten off before use. It was rumored that the grease was composed of the fat of cow and pig. The sepoys were angered as it hurt their religious feelings.

8. The revolt began at Meerut, 36 miles from Delhi on 10th May 1857. Soon the mutiny of the soldiers spread to vast area throughout India.

9. There was lack of effective leadership, their resources were meager and military equipment was no match for the British Hence, they crushed it.

10. The revolt was dubbed by the British as Sepoy Mutiny. The Indian Nationalists called it the “First War of India Independence”.

11. After the revolt, the British government brought many administrative, economic and military changes.

12. The failure of the revolt made Indians realize that they cannot be fought with traditional means and realize for the political movement.

 

1. Give a brief account of the Indus Valley Civilization.

1. Until 1922, it was generally believed that Indian History starts with the coming of Aryans into India some time in the second millennium B.C.

2. But in 1921-22, the archaeological excavations revealed the existence of pre-Aryan civilization in the north-west of India, the Indus Valley Civilization with two urban centres at Mohenjodaro and Harappa.

3. Mohenjodaro is located in the Larkana District of Sind province of Pakistan, Harappa is located in the Montgomery district of Punjab.

4. The whole civilization was spread over a wide area covering the Punjab, Sind, Gujarat and Rajasthan.

5. This civilization flourished in India as early as 3000-1500 B.C.

6. The chief characteristic feature of Indus Valley Civilization is its urban character.

7. The Indus Valley Civilization had well-planned cities, well-built houses, with a very good drainage facility.

8. There were pillared halls and granaries. The Great Bath at Mohenjodaro was a striking example of city culture.

9. The civilization came to an end on account of either drastic climatic changes or constant flooding of river Indus or due to barbaric invasions.

2. What are the essential features of Vedic civilization

1. Next to Indus civilization, another high civilization was developed in India by the Aryans.

2. By about 1500 BC, they migrated to Northern India through the passes in the Hindkush Mountains.

3. At first they wandered across the plains of Punjab searching for pastures. Later there they moved into central India and then into the Indo-Gangetic plain.

4. By 6th Century B.C they were organizing into Janapadas. They were about sixteen Janapadas.

5. The Aryans produced Vedic literature. There were four Vedas namely: The Rigveda, The Yajurveda, The Samaveda and The Atharwana Veda.
6. In the Rig-Vedic period there were tribal kingdoms.

7. In the period of later Vedas, the kingdoms expanded.

8. The Aryans achieved great progress in agricultural and industry. There was internal and external trade.

9. The age of the epics the Ramayana and Mahabharata, is a continuation of the later Vedic period.

10. It was a period of great achievements in political and cultural aspects of life.

3. Write about characteristic features of Indian History

1. Indian History is studied under three broad periods namely.
a. Ancient
b. Medieval and
c. Modern.

2. This division was not made on any scientific reasoning, but for the easy and comprehensive understanding.

3. a. Ancient Period:-

The Period from Indus to the establishment of Delhi Sultanate is generally called Ancient.

b. Medieval Period:-

From the establishment of Delhi Sultanate to the fall of Mughal Empire as Medieval History.

c. Modern Period:-

From the establishment of British rule till Independence as Modern period.

4. India was subjected throughout its history by several invasions, some invading and leaving the country carrying away wealth and some settling down in India and ruling for many centuries.

5. The foreign rulers had influenced Indian culture and there was cultural fusion.

6. Many attempts were made from time to time to bring the entire country under a single political rule, it was foiled by small and local dynasties and kings, each having a small territory.

7. Due to this lack of united political rule in India, there was no unitary administrative structure. Several regional cultures emerged with regional characteristics.

8. Another characteristic feature of Indian society is its rich religious tradition. Several religions took birth in India, namely Vedic or Hindu religion, Jainism, Buddhism etc.

9. Several foreign invasions brought new religions such as Islam and Christianity.

10. Hinduism had expanded to accommodate the good virtues of the foreign religions.

4. What are contributions of Mughals to Indian Architecture (or) Mughal Architecture

1. All the Mughal emperors except Aurangazeb were great builders and they built several forts, Mausoleums, Mosques and gardens.

2. Babar and Humayun, the early Mughal rulers did not have belief in the artistic skills of Indians and brought artisans and sculptors from Persia.

3. Babar built several mosques. The History of Mughal Art actually begins with Akbar.

4. The architecture of his reign is characterized by a blending of Hindu and Muslim styles.

5. At Fathepur Sikri which Akbar made as his capital for the period between 1568 to 1584 we have the most splendid edifices

6. Jodh Bai’s palace, Diwan –i –Am, Diwan – i –Khas, Jami Masid and Panch mahal are marvels of architectural craftsmanship. The most imposing structure is the arch known as Buland Darwaja.

7. Akbar’s palace and fort at Agra, with high walls and imposing gateway, reveals the beauty of Rajput style.

8. Jahangir gave patronage to Mughal miniature painting.

9. During Shahjahan’s period marble replaced stone and Indo-Persian architecture was patronized by him.

10. The Red Fort in Delhi was built by him but the crowning achievement of Shahjahan’s period was the construction of the magnificient Taj Mahal. This is considered as one among the wonders of the world.

5. Write about the six schools of Ancient Indian Philosophy

1. In ancient India Philosophical speculation about supreme, Brahman, Re-birth Karma and Moksha were embodied in Upanishads.
2. There were six schools of Hindu Philosophy called as Asthika Darshanas. They are
1. Nyaya
2. Sankhya
3. Vaiseshika
4. Yoga
5. Purvamimamsa
6. Uttara Mimansa or Vedanta

3. Vedanta Philosophy is the most popular of six systems.

4. Vedanta is found on the authority of Upanishads, the Gita and Brahmasutras.

5. It brings out the Mystical, Ethical and Metaphysical aspects of Philosophy.

6. Acharyas like Shankara, Ramanuja and Madhava interpreted the Vedanta in different ways known as Advaita, and Visishatadvaita and Dvaita.

6. Medieval Bhakti Movement in India:-

1. On account of Muslim rule in India, Hinduism was influenced by Islam.

2. The Monotheist principles like worship without rituals and idols (Nirguna worship) and the elements of social equality in islam have made profound impact on Hindu religion.

3. It was on account of Islamic influence on Hindus during the Muslim rule that we find reformation in certain aspects of Hindu religion.

4. These efforts were made by the Bhakti saints in India. For the rise of Bhakti Movement, the Preaching of Sufi saints were also responsible.

5. The main principles of Bhakti Movement:-

1. The main principles of Bhakti Movement are

a. Belief in Single God,
b. Social equality,
c. Non-idol worship,
d. Opposing ritual practices and religious sacrifices,
e. Putting complete devotion in the worship of God with pure mind and maintaining good character and,
f. Leading pious life.

2. The Bhakti saints believed that through devotion to God alone, Moksha can be attained by man.

3. The Chief Bhakti saints were Ramanuja, Nimbarka, Madhava, Ramananda, Meerabai, Vallabhacharya, Chaitanya, Vasudeva, Guru Nanak, Tukaram and Kabir.

 

1. Amaravathi School of Art:-

1. In South India flourished the famous Amaravathi school of art and architecture.

2. Beautiful Stupas were erected in the lower valley of Krishna river at Amaravathi, Jaggayyapeta and Nagarjuna Konda.

3. The railings of Amaravati Stupa were made of marble.

4. The figures at Amaravati were slim and beautiful.

5. Flowers, particularly Lotus were most admirably represented in this school of art.

2. South Indian Temples:-

1. The history of architecture and sculpture in South India attained a water mark at the close of 6th century under Pallava rule.

2. The Pallava art is exhibited at the construction of temples, Mandapas and Pagodas.

3. Narasimha Varma founded the town of Mahabalipuram and constructed the seven Pagodas each of which is cut from a great rock boulder.

4. In continuation of the Pallava art, we came across the chola art and architecture.

5. The best examples of chola architecture is the huge Brihadeshwara temple located at Tanjore built in 1009 by Raja Raja Chola.

6. The Nataraja image at Chidambaram made of copper is considered as the biggest in the country.

7. Another important temple was built by Rajendra Chola at Gangaikonda Cholopuram.

3. Leaders who roused the National consciousness in India:-

1. The renaissance movement and the Socio-Religious reform movement helped in the growth and development of National consciousness.

2. In Bengal, the Annual Hindu Mela started by Gopal Mitra awakened nationalism among Bengalis.

3. Similarly the Ganapati festival and Shivaji Utsav started in Maharashtra by Tilak stimulated nationalism among the Maharashtrians.

4. Swami Dayananda Sarawati created patriotic feeling among his followers.

5. Vivekananda’s triumphant tour of U.S.A. and his powerful oration at the parliament of world religions held in 1894 at Chicago created self – confidence among the Indians and has stimulated nationalism.

4. Impact of English education on Indians:-

1. The advent of English education, the missionary activities, and their introduction of transport and communication, helped the promotion of the world out look of Indians.

2. It brought a new spirit among Indians.

3. The social evils such as untouchability, women’s subordination idol worship, polytheism, rituals etc have undergone strict re-examination by Indians and several reformers emerged.

4. They were able to understand the philosophy of Ploto, Aristotle, Hegel, Kent and Karl Mark.

5. They were also able to understand the socialist theories of Voltaire,Dedorot and Machiavelle

6. They came out of Superstitions and adopted logical thinking. .

 

1. How as the Ratial system during Vedic Period

During the Vedic period there was an inter mixture of races. As a result there was ratial synthesis leading to the emergence of Indian culture.

2. What are the unifying factors of Indian Culture?

1. Common Festivals.
2. Worshipping common Gods and Goddesses.
3. Common customs and tradition

 

1. Excavation of Indus Valley Civilization was first carried out by Sir John Marshall.
2. The British who succeeded in abolishing the practice of Sati in India was William Benlick.
3. The European country which held monopoly over India trade during 16th century was Portugal.
4. The great astronomer of ancient India Varahamihirudu.
5. The Ramakrishna Mission was founded by Swami Vivekananda.

6. Red fort located in Delhi was built by Shahjahan.

7. Mahabalipuram is the best example of the art of Pallavas.(Narasimhavarma)

8. The patriotic song Vandematram was written by Bankhim Chandra Chatterjee.

9. Brihadeswara temple is located at Tanjore.

10. The famous Gandhara art was encouraged by Gupta ruler kanishka.

11. Hoyasaleswara temple was located at Hale Bedu.

12. Miniature Paintings was encouraged by Jahangir.

13. The builder of Buland- Darwaja was Akbar.

14. The festival Hindu Mela was organized by Gopal Mitra.

15. The founder of Arya Samaj is Dayananda Saraswati.

16. The author of Amuktamalyada Krishnadevaraya.

17. The first president of Indian National Congress W.C.Benarjee.

18. Chittaranjan Das is called as Desha – Bandhu.

19. The author of ‘India wins Freedom’ was Abdul Kalam Azad.

20. The book ‘Indica’ was written by Megasthanese

21. The author of ‘Akbarnama’ was Abul Fazal.

22. Gopalamitra provoked national feelings in Bengalese.

23. Ajanta caves were in Aurangabad.

24. Kiratarjuneeyam was written by Bharavi.

25. The news paper kesari was edited by Bal Gangadhar Tilak.

26. The temple Alay Darwajza was constructed in 1311.

27. Rigveda is the earliest of the Vedas.

28. The philosophy advocated by a Sankaracharya is known as Adwaita.

29. The 1857 revolt began at Meerut.

30. The founder of Indian National Congress was A.O.Hume.

31. The news paper Amrit Bazar Patrika was edited by Sisir Kumar Ghosh.

32. Great master of Indian Medical Science was Charaka.

33. The ‘Great Bath’ was discovered at Mohendjodara.

34. Gandhara sculpture belongs to the period of Kanishka.

35. Brihadeeswara temple was built by Raja Raja Chola.

36. Vivekananda participated in the conference of world religious at Chicago (1894).

37. The Sepai Munity took place in the year 1857.

38. Ajanta Caves are of Guptas period.

39. The town Gangai Konda Cholapuram was built by Rajendra Chola.

40. Shahjahans period is known as the Golden age in the Mughal era.

41. The Philosaphy “Dvaita” was advocated by Madhava Charya

Match the following:-

1. Vedic Civilization                                        [ f ] a. Buddhism.

2. Mathura School of Art                               [ b ] b. Jainism.

3. Gandhara School of Art                              [ a ] c. Medicine.

3. Charaka                                                       [ c ] d. Chicago religious conference.s

4. Vivekananda                                                [ d ] e. Nagarjuna Konda

f. Aryans.

 

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