Civics – INDIA UNITED AND WORLD PROBLEMS

UNIT – 4

INDIA UNITED AND WORLD PROBLEMS

I. Answer the following:-

1. Explain why India had to choose non-alignment policy?

Ans. 1. India had to shape its foreign policy in a world in which most countries of
the world were polarized into two powerful rival blocs.

2. One bloc included the western countries led by the United States of America (U.S.A) and the second bloc comprised the socialist countries led by the soviet union (USSR).

3. Although the second world war ended, the tensions in the world continued and culminated in a cold war between the two super-powers.

4. The cold war posed peculiar problems for the newly independent Asian and African States.

5. They thought it prudent to remain non-aligned to secure national interest and also to reduce international tensions.

6. India fought against colonial rule and for freedom by 1947, it could not align with the western bloc.

7. Nor could it align with the socialist bloc because of two reasons:
a. Indian leaders were not completely in favour of the communist model.
b. Secondly, India was highly dependent on western powers for trade and foreign aid.

8. Therefore, non-alignment became the central piece of India’s foreign policy.

9. This policy of non-alignment did not mean withdrawal from an active role in international affairs. Its objective was to promote friendly relations and cooperation among nations and to promote world peace.

2. Explain problems in India’s relations with Pakistan?

Ans. Indo-Pakistan relations:-

1. Relations with Pakistan have been problematic for India though there have
been agreements on some issues.

2. Indo-Pakistan relations over the last five decades are, by and large, marked by
mutual suspicion, animosity and hostilities.

3. The fact that India was partitioned into Bharat and Pakistan in the communal
holocaust left a lasting influence on the relations between the two countries.

4. Kashmir remained the bone of contention between the two countries since
1947.

5. Liberation of Kashmir from India’s control is sought by the Pakistani rulers
with the necessary mobilization for international support.

6. While Pakistan treats the issue unresolved, India reiterates that Kashmir is an
integral part of India.

7. The relations between the two countries worsened when they resorted to war in
1965.

8. The two countries once again went to war in 1971 over Bangladesh issue.

9. In July 1972, the two countries concluded a bilateral agreement. It was agreed
to resolve the disputes between the two countries without resorting to force
and interference from any third party.

10. The relations between India and Pakistan further weakened during the Sikh
separatist movement in Punjab.

11. There was again a war between India and Pakistan in 1999 in Kargil sector an
account of Kashmir issue.

12. To ease the tensions between the two countries, discussions have been taking
place between the Prime Ministers of the two countries.

13. Recently Nov 2008 Pakistan terrorists created the bomb blasts in Mumbai
which worsened relationship between both countries.

3. What are the aims of the United Nations?

Ans. 1. The United Nations Organization came into existence on October 24, 1945.

2. Delegates from 51 nations participated in the San Francisco meeting and agreed to the charter of the United Nations.

3. The Headquarters of the United nations is located in the city of New York, USA.

4. The aims of the United Nations are:-
a. to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war.
b. to reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights.
c. To safeguard the dignity and worth of the human beings.
d. To safeguard equal rights to men and women.
e. To ensure equality of nations, whether big or small.
f. To promote justice through the application of international law and,
g. To promote Social progress and better standards of life.

4. Explain the meaning of New International Economic Order.

Ans:

1. With the decline of colonialism and the emergence of a large number of newly independent states, the issue of inequitious economic relations between the developed and the developing countries has come to the forefront.

2. The economically backward nations began to realise that the cause of inequality are rooted in the international economic system

3. Consequently, these nations proposed New International Economic Order (NIEO)

4. It seeks to restructure the present economic order which is favourable to the developed countries.

5. It stands for a new economic order in which the developing countries would get what is their due and where they had a more positive role to play.

6. In 1973, the Algiers conference of the non-aligned nations called for the Establishment of a NIEO.

7. The Sixth special session of the UN in 1974 adopted a declaration and programme of Action for the establishment of NIEO.

8. The Declaration recognized the right of every state to sovereignty over its natural resources.

9. The programme of action proposed several measures on raw materials, international monetary reform, financing of development of poor developing nations, industrialization, transfer of technology and multinational corporations.

10. In November 1974, the General Assembly approved the charter of Economic Rights and Duties of States.

11. In 1980, the Willy Brandt commission on international development issues called for the evolution of coherent strategy for narrowing the economic gap between the rich and poor nations.

5. Describe the problems of environmental pollution and ecological decay.

Ans.
1. Environmental pollution, ecological decay and depletion of natural resources have become major international problems in the last two or three decades.

2. Forests are indiscriminately cut down for building river valley projects, heavy industries, for expanding towns and laying roads, or for the purposes of the timber and cultivation.

3. It is estimated that 89 percent of forest cover has disappeared through out the world during the 20th century.

4. Reckless deforestation by individuals, institutions and private business leads to dangerous imbalances in our biosphere.

5. They also lead to natural calamities like floods, soil erosion, silting of rivers, drought and eventual desertification.

6. The industrial waste materials, which are often poisonous and harmful, are let into human habitats, canals and rivers and air.

7. The ozone layer, which absorbs much of the ultraviolet radiation from the sun, is getting damaged because of excessive emission of an inert gas, namely Chloroflouro carbons (CFC).

8. The western nations are dumping their industrial and nuclear wastes in the third world countries.

9. Soil fertility and its recuperative power are damaged by the excessive use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides.

10. The highly industrialized rich nations, which has less than 20 percent of world population, consume 90 percent of world’s natural resources and contribute to 80 percent of pollution.

11. The excessive emission of greenhouse gases in some industrial countries had a global impact. It contributes to global warming.

6. Explain human rights according to the universal declaration?

Ans.
1. Since world war II, there has been an increasing concern throughout the world to secure human rights for all.

2. The Universal Declaration of Human rights approved by the United Nations General Assembly on 10 December, 1948, inaugurated a new understanding of human rights in the contemporary era.

3. It states that recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal right of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world.

4. It proclaims that “all human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights.”

5. It deals not only with civil and political rights but also with economic, social and cultural rights, such as the right to work and the right to education.

6. Every individual, society and state shall strive to promote respect for these rights and freedoms and to secure their effective implementation.

7. We have to promote love for Human Rights eschewing the recent developments towards terrorism and increase of violence throughout the world.

II. Answer the following:-

1. What is non-alignment?

Ans.
1. The cold war posed peculiar problems for the newly Independent Asian and African States.

2. Most of which thought it prudent to remain non-aligned to secure national interest and also to reduce international tensions.

3. Refusal to align either with the communist bloc or the non-communist bloc is one policy.

4. And to pursue and independent foreign policy in the bipolar world was called the policy of non-alignment.

2. State the foundational principles of India’s Foreign Policy

Ans. The foundational principles of India’s foreign policy are:-
a. opposition to colonialism, fascism and racism;
b. equality of nations
c. a world of peace and freedom
d. a world without conflict and war
e. peaceful settlement of international and bilateral disputes and
f. mutual cooperation among the nations on terms of equality.

3. Mention the objectives of the SAARC.

Ans. The SAARC (South Asian Association for Regional Co-operation) was launched in December 1985 at the Dhaka summit meeting of the Heads of states in the region. They included India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Bhutan, Afganistan and Maldives as its members.

The objectives of the SAARC are

1. To promote the welfare of the peoples of South Asia and to improve their quality of life.

2. To achieve economic growth, social progress and cultural development of the region.

3. To promote and strengthen collective self-reliance among the countries of South Asia and to contribute to the human resource development of the people.

4. To contribute to mutual trust, understanding and appreciation of another’s problems and

5. To promote active collaboration and mutual assistance in economic, social, cultural and technical fields.

4. Explain the main functions of the General Assembly.

Ans. The General Assembly:-

1. The General Assembly consists of all the members of the United Nations. Each member state has one vote only.

2. The General Assembly meets once an year, but it may also meet in special sessions.

3. Decisions of the General Assembly on important questions shall be made by two-thirds majority of the members.

The main functions of the general assembly:

1. The questions include recommendations with respect to the maintenance of international peace and security.
2. The election of non-permanent members of the security council.
3. The Admission of new members of UN and the expulsion of the members.
4. It assists in the realisation of human rights and fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to race, sex, language or religion.
5. It considers and approves the budget of the Organization.

5. State the powers of the security council.

Ans. The Security Council:-

1. It consists of five permanent members and ten non-permanent members

2. The five permanent members are : China, Russia, Great Britain, France and the United States of America.

3. The five permanent members enjoy ‘veto’ power.

4. It can call on its members to apply economic sanctions or to sever diplomatic relations with a state which poses a threat to peace.

5. It can also take military action against an aggressor as may be necessary to maintain or restore international peace and security.

6. What is U.N. Secretariat?

Ans. 1. The secretariat consists of a secretary. General and staff to carry on the diverse day-to-day work and administration of the United Nation Organization.

2. The General Assembly, upon the recommendation of the security council, appoints him. The members of the UN have to respect the international character of his responsibilities.

3. He has the authority to bring to the attention of the security council any matter which in his opinion may threaten the maintenance of international peace and security.

4. He presents an annual report to the General Assembly on the work of the Organization.

5. Mr. Bankimoon (North Korea) is the present secretary General of UNO.

7. Name the specialized agencies of the UN.

Ans. The following are U.N.’s specialized agencies:-
1. International Labour Organization (ILO) – Geneva
2. Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) – Rome
3. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) – Paris.
4. World Health Organization (WHO) – Geneva
5. International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), popularly known as the ‘World Bank’ – Washington.
6. International Monetary Fund (IMF) – Washington
7. World Trade Organization (WTO) – Geneva
8. United Nation’s International Children Emergency Fund (UNICEF) – New York.

8. Name the principal organs of the UN?

Ans. The principal organs of the United Nations are:-
1. General Assembly
2. Security Council
3. Economic and Social Council
4. Trusteeship Council
5. International Court of Justice
6. Secretariat.

9. What is ‘Panchasheel’?

Ans. 1. China did not accept the boundary between Tibet and India, which was drawn by the British known as Macmohan line.

2. The 1954 treaty between India and China has incorporated the principles of Non-interference in other’s internal affairs and respect for each other’s territorial unity, integrity and sovereignty.

3. These principles were known as ‘Panchasheel’.

10. What is the main objective of the New International economic order?

Ans. Objectives :-

1. With the decline of colonialism and the emergence of a large number of newly independent states, the issue of inequitious economic relations between the developed and the developing countries has come to the forefront.

2. The economically backward nations began to realise that the causes of inequality are rooted in the international economic system.

3. Consequently these nations proposed new International Economic Order (NIEO)

4. It seeks to restructure the present economic order which is favourable to the developed countries.

5. It stands for new economic order in which the developing countries would get what is their due and where they had a more positive role to play.

11. Explain the problems of deforestation.

Ans. Problems of deforestation:-

1. As modernity increases world-wide the forests are declining

2. Forests are indiscriminately cut down for building river valley projects, heavy industries for expanding towns and laying roads, or for the purposes of timber and cultivation.

3. It is estimated that 11 million hectares of forests cover has disappeared throughout the world during the 20th century.

4. Which India has 17 percent of world population, it has only one percent of forest of the world.

5. Reckless deforestation by individuals institutions and private business leads to dangerous imbalances in our biosphere.

6. They also lead to natural calamities like floods, soil erosion, silting of rivers, drought and eventual desertification.

12. Explain the word ‘Third World’?

Ans. Third World:-

1. The term ‘Third World’ represents a large number of newly independent and developing nations of Asia, Africa and Latin America.

2. They neither belong to the developed western group (First World) of nations nor the socialist group (Second World).

3. These Third World nations possess same common features and problems. Most of them were former colonies of the Western imperialist powers.

4. They face problems of extreme economic inequalities, poverty and backwardness.

5. India’s policy of non-alignment has become a model for several other Third World countries.

6. The principal position and problems of the Third World are stated at the Bandung conference.

7. India also played a key role in formulating the Third World perspective on the world economic situation.

III. Answer the following:

1. What measures do you suggest to protect the environment?

Ans. It is time to take up necessary measures to protect our environment.

1. All industries must follow safe and scientific methods of disposing the waste material.

2. Industries that pollute environment shall be closed down.

3. Use of manure instead of chemical fertilizers has to be encouraged.

4. Afforestation and planting of saplings, in urban and rural areas will help to restore the levels of oxygen in our atmosphere and also prevent several natural hazards.

5. Bicycles can be used for short distances instead of scooters, three-wheelers and cars.

6. Governments of various countries should give priority to programmes aimed at controlling environmental pollution.
2. Expand NPT and CTBT.

Ans. NPT means Non-proliferation Treaty, CTBT means Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty.

3. What is meant by Common Wealth?

Ans. The common wealth is an association of countries which were once ruled by the British country. Today, there are 54 countries.

4. What is foreign policy?

Ans. Foreign policy may be defined as a set of deliberately chosen guidelines for the protection and promotion of national interest to the maximum extent possible in the international arena.

5. Discuss India’s role in the United Nations Organization.

Ans. India is one of the founder members of the UN. It is one of the stauch supporters of UN. It extended its whole hearted cooperation to the charter of the UN both in spirit and letter.

1. India has been opposing from the UN platform racialism, colonialism, imperialism, rivalry between military blocks and arms race.

2. India has only advocated peaceful settlement of disputes between nations and also actively participated in the UN peace. Keeping missions around the world.

3. India acted as a member of the Security Council during 1991-92 and was chosen as the chairman of the UN Repatriation Commission to deal with the issue of prisoners of war.

4. India has been playing a crucial role in the UN disarmament commission.

5. India holds a permanent seat on the governing body of the International Labour Organization.

6. India is the largest donor to the United Nations Development Fund among the developing countries. In brief, India’s role in United Nations in recent past has become so prominent that United Nations is looking to India in finding solutions to global problems and conflicts.

6. Write full form of IBRD.
Ans. IBRD – International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, it is also known as the World Bank.

7. What is the Veto power?
Ans. A privilized special power of the five big countries not to allow any country to discuss a point in the security council is called Veto power.

8. Expand the term SAARC
Ans. SAARC – South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation.

9. Write the full form of IMF
Ans. IMF – International Monetary Fund

10. What is environment?
Ans. Environment refers to all the conditions and influences surrounding and affecting our existence and development.

11. Explain the achievements of UNO in maintaining world peace?

Ans. The UNO has many achievements to its credit in political field. Some of them are

1. It intervened in the Korean war in 1950 and stopped it.

2. It solved the Suez Canal Crisis in 1956.

3. It settled the Congo dispute in 1960 and freed it from Belgium.

4. It resolved the conflict between the Arabs and the Jews in Palestine and helped to form Israel.

5. It tried to stop the war between Iraq and Iran.

6. When Iraq occupied Kuwait, the UNO sent military forces and liberated Kuwait from Iraq.

7. It legitimately supported Cyprus in the conflict which arose between Turkey and Greece.

8. The UNO supported the struggles against colonialism and radicalism. It helped the colonial countries in getting independence.

9. It brought pressure against South Africa’s apartheid regime by imposing sanctions. As a result the apartheid regime came to end in South Africa.

10. Strategic Arms Limitation Talks, Disarmament, Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty etc are some of the political achievement of the UNO.

IV. Fill in the blanks:-

1. The year in which Bangladesh came into existence 1971.

2. The Indo-Soviet Treaty was signed by India and the former Soviet Union in the year 1971.

3. NPT stands for Non-Proliferation Treaty.

4. CTBT stands for Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty.

5. The African country that followed a policy of racial discrimination South Africa.

6. The boundary line between India and China is called Mac Mohan Line.

7. The year of India-China war 1962.

8. SAARC was launched in 1985 at the Dhaka summit meeting of the Heads of states in the South Asia region.

9. United Nations charter was signed at the San Francisco meeting.

10. United Nations came into existence on October 24, 1945.

11. The term of a judge in the International Court of Justice is for 9 years.

12. India has one percent of the forest in the world.

13. Present Secretary General of the United Nations Baan – Ki – Moon.

14. IBRD – International Bank for Reconstruction and Development.

15. IMF – International Monetary Fund.

16. Names of the countries that are permanent members of the U.N. China, France, Russia, the U.K. and the U.S.A.

17. UNCTAD – United Nations Conference on Trade and Development.

18. In which conference did the non-aligned nations give a call for International Economic Order Algiers.

19. The year of the report of Willy Brandt Commission 1980.

20. Bandung conference 1955.

21. The year in which the Universal Declaration of Human Rights was adopted by the United Nations 1948 December 10.

22. The first SAARC summit was held in Dhaka (Bangladesh).

23. International Court of Justice is located at The Hague (Netherland).

24. Suez Canal Crisis in 1956.

25. The main architect of Indian foreign policy was Nehru.

26. The treaty of Panchasheel between Nehruji and Chou-En-Lai.

27. WHO stands for World Health Organization.

28. Association of countries which were once ruled by the British common wealth.

29. 1983 common wealth conference was held in Delhi.

30. Algiers conference was held in 1973.

31. The countries which have formed a third bloc non-aligned countries.

32. The present membership of UNO is 192 countries.(1995)

33. Dalai lama is a Buddhist religious leader.

34. Security Council organ of UNO has veto power.

35. SAARC was launched to promote cooperation among South Asian Countries.

36. UNO headquarter is located at New York.

37. NIEO – New International Economic Order.

38. The 1954 treaty between India and China has incorporated the principles of Panchasheel.

39. The demolition of Babri Masjid in 1992.

40. The head quarters of ILO is located in Geneva.

41. The head quarters of FAO is located in Rome.

42. The head quarters of IMF is located at Washington.

43. The head quarters of W.H.O is located at Geneva.

44. India conducted nuclear explosion first time in the year 1974.

45. The largest trading partner of India is America.

46. The membership of India in ILO is permanent.

47. The excessive emission of greenhouse gases is causing global warming.

48. So far, India had to go to war with Pakistan 3 Times.

49. Number of countries in SAARC is 8.

Civics – TRAFFIC EDUCATION