UNIT – 3


I. Answer the following :-

1. What are the steps to be taken to realize the objective of Universal primary education?

Ans. 1. Literacy and education play an important role in the development of the individual and society.
2. The national policy on education which was laid down in 1996 has not realized the expected results.
3.The government document “Education for all” designed in 1990 reaffirms the country’s commitment to universalizing primary education by the year 2000.

Central and state government should attach more importance to realize this objective.

1. Enrollment in the schools must be made compulsory.
2. There is need to step up enrollment particularly among girls.
3. Wastage and stagnation should be minimized by following non – detention method.
4. Efficiency of resource use in primary schools has to be improved.
5. Stress has to be laid on promotion of primary education in backward and tribal areas.
6. Effective companions are necessary to increase awareness among the parents especially among the backward classes and poor families.
7. Government should provide some incentives to the students belonging to backward classes and poor families like scholarships, hostel facilities, mid-day meals, free supply of books etc.,
8. Teaching and learning environment has to be made lively and meaningful to the children.

2. What are the ways to curb communalism in India?

Ans. Communalism

It is a narrow, divisive and aggressive attitude on the part of group to the detriment of other groups. It is in any form, harmful to society. It leads to group clashes and bloodshed.

Ways to curb communalism in India:-

1. We must strive to curb communal feelings and animosities. We shall cultivate fraternal feelings towards others, irrespective of religion. All of us should fell that we are all Indians.

2. The press and media can also play a positive in exposing the evil designs of the communalists and also informing and educating the people.

3. The composition of the armed constabulary should be such that it is not weighed in favour of any community.

4. In the event of any communal tension or conflict the administration should take immediate steps to diffuse the situation.

5. Those who are responsible for the problem must be severely punished and long-term measures are also necessary to prevent the recurrence of such incidents.

6. There is a Minorities Commission to inquire into the grievances of the minorities.

7. Election commission will ban any political party from contesting elections if it uses religion or religious symbols for gaining votes.

3. Suggest some measures for the improvement of the conditions of scheduled castes and scheduled tribes in India?

Ans. Measures for improving the conditions of the SCs and STs:

If the living conditions of the SC and ST people have to improve, urgent measures are necessary. Some of them are:

1. Meaningful land reform and tenancy laws should be enacted and implemented effectively.

2. State must ensure that the tribal’s land is not alienated by the non-tribal’s and their rights on forests are recognised.

3. SCs and STs shall be made partners in development, not its victims.

4. Education must be given the highest priority in the programmes for the welfare and advancement of SCs and STs.

5. Hostel facilities, free supply of books, scholarships etc. should be implemented to them.

6. Reservation facility in education and employment has to be properly implemented.

7. They should be represented in an adequate number in jobs and positions at higher levels.

8. Those who commit crimes against them must be severely punished.

9. Finally if everyone of us cultivates the values of equality and fraternity the evils of casteism and crimes against the disadvantaged sections of Indian society will slowly disappear.

4. Give your views on the future of the status of women in India.

Ans. The Future status of women in India should be:

1. Today women are asking not merely for protection but liberation: not merely for welfare but empowerment

2. What oppresses women today are not biological differences but social inequalities imposed on them in the last few centuries.

3. Hence, these inequalities can be demolished. We need a society where women are free and respected as much as men are

4. We have to change the social and cultural practices that inhibit the development of women.

5. Women are entering a large number of occupations as people’s representatives, Ministers at the Union and State levels, administrators, police officers, lawyers, doctors, engineers, pilots, military personnel, teachers, office staff etc.

6. They constitute 50 percent of the population but their participation in politics is very low.

7. The efforts are made to reserve one third of public officers. It is already observed in local bodies and educational institutions.

8. One-third of seats reserved in parliament and state assemblies for women.

9. India can develop only when women are regarded as equal, when they could freely exercise their rights and contribute to the nation’s progress.

5. State the laws relating to the protection, welfare and rights of children in

Ans. The National Policy of Children, 1974 declared that “it shall be the policy of the state to provide adequate services to children, both before and after birth and through the period of growth, to ensure their full physical, mental and social development.

Rights of a Child:

India is a signatory to the ‘Convention on the Rights of the Child’. Thus India is obliged to protect the rights of children. Some of them are:

The right to Survival:

Which includes the right to life, health, nutrition and adequate standards of living.

The right to Protection:

Which includes freedom from all forms of exploitation, abuse, inhuman or degrading treatment and neglect;

The right to Development:

Which includes the right to education, support for early childhood development and care, social security and right to leisure, recreation and cultural activities.

The right to Participation:

Which includes respect for the views of child, freedom of expression, access to appropriate information and freedom of thought, conscience and religion.

The Indian state has made some significant laws for children such as

1. The children (pledging of labour) Act, 1933 aims at eradicating the evil of pledging the labour of young children by their parents to employers in lieu of loans and advances.

2. The employment of children Act, 1938 lays down that children cannot be employed in hazardous work.

3. The factories Act, 1948 provides that children shall not be required or allowed to work in any factory.

6. Explain the right to life?

Ans. 1. The Indian constitution and other laws guaranteed several rights to Indian
2. Most important of the citizen’s rights is the right to life.
3. It is embedded in Article 21 of the Constitution.                                                                                                          4. It says that “no person shall be deprived of his life or personal liberty except according to the procedure established by law”. Even this procedure established by law must be reasonable, right, just and fair.

5. Poor and needy people are entitled to free legal services,

6. Any form of torture or cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment is declared to be offensive to human dignity and constitutes an inroad into the right to life.

7. Citizens are also guaranteed protection against arbitrary arrest and detention. When a person is taken into custody he/she shall be informed of the grounds for such arrest.

8. “The writ of habeas corpus” provides a remedy for wrongful detention of a person.

7. Explain the dangers of drug addiction.

Ans. Danger of drug addict:

1. A person who is in the habit of taking drugs is called drug addict. It become world wide problem.

2. Morphin, heroin, hashish, charas and ganja are some of the names of various drugs and narcotics.

3. Adolescents are initiated to these narcotics by friends, neighbourhood acquaintances and drug peddlers.

4. A drug addict requires more and more drug, more often and in greater amount.

5. The addict increasingly identifies himself/herself with the addict group. Interest in previous friendships is withdrawn; studies are abandoned.

6. The addicted person spends most of his time in obtaining further supplies to keep oneself on drugs.

7. It becomes prohibitively expensive, which means that he must raise money by any means

8. When the drugs are not available the addict lapses into restlessness. The addict then experiences severe insomnia, nausea, vomiting etc.

9. The addict always faces the danger of arrest of infection, of collapsed veins or of death from over dosage.

10. That is why we must always be on guard against the lure of drugs and drug peddlers.

11. Measures to stamp out drug trafficking have to be implemented strictly by the government.

8. Explain the problem of criminality in our society.

Ans. Problems of criminality in our society:

1. Those who engaged in criminal activities like loss of property or life of others are called criminal persons.

2. Those who commit crime are increasingly becoming influential in society and public life.

3. Criminals and criminal gangs have not confined themselves to amassing wealth through extortions, smuggling, drug-trafficking, black-marketing etc.

4. In big cities the mafia gangs have their sway. In some rural areas faction leaders maintain private armies.

5. These armed gangs, whether in urban or rural areas, cause havoc in the life of the common people.

6. In order to curb the growing menace of criminality in our society we need righteous leaders at the helm of affairs and in the government.

7. People have to be also vigilant and reject criminality in the society

8. What are the ways to curb Casteism in India?

The ways to curb Casteism in India are

1. Respect the constitutional provision. Discrimination based on caste should be avoided.
2. Promote awareness among people that caste system is opposed to democratic principles of liberty, equality and fraternity.
3. Eradicate untouchability. Social workers and voluntary organization have to play an important role in this matter.
4. Bonded labor should be abolished (where even still existing) to reduce inequalities in wealth and land ownership which are responsible for caste problems.
5. Govt. should ensure effective implementation of several land reforms introduced in order to ensure equitable distribution of land.
6. Through education bring awareness and urge for self respect which can curb caste system.
7. Every one should cultivate the values of equality and fraternity to curb caste system.
8. Improve the condition of SC and STs.

II. Answer the following:

1. What is Communalism?

Ans. 1. Communalism is a narrow, divisive and aggressive attitude on the part of a
group to the detriment of other groups.

2. They look upon each other with a sense of suspicion and hatred.

3. Communalism of one variety feeds on communalism of other varieties.

4. Religious orthodoxy and fanaticism provide the ground on which the tendency of communalism stands and finds its sustenance

5. Communalism is primarily fostered by few, often with a view to gain political power or economic gain for themselves.

2. Explain the meaning of casteism?

Ans. Casteism:

1. Caste is an endogamous group, known as Jati (or Kulam in Andhra Pradesh), linked by marriage and lineage.

2. It provides to the individual an identify in the locality.

3. Casteism may be defined as the discrimination of persons on the basis of caste especially the upper caste persons be treating themselves as superior and other as low and inferior.

4. The castes which are placed at a higher level in the traditional Hindu hierarchy looked down those below them in the past.

5. The Hindu society has been traditionally divided into four varnas.

3. Define regionalism in the Indian context.

Ans. Regionalism in the Indian context:

1. The term ‘regionalism’ may be defined as a tendency to preserve and promote the language, customs and culture, economy and the way of life of a particular region.

2. In our country, region may mean a group of states with some shared characteristics (eg., the southern region), a state (eg., Andhra Pradesh) or a parts of the existing state (eg., Telangana)

3. Regionalism has to be distinguished from separatism or secessionism. In the Indian context separatism means advocacy for a separate state within the country.

4. Secessionism means advocacy of withdrawal from the larger country or total separation as a nation.

4. What is Sub-regionalism?

Ans. 1. It is difficult to distinguish a region and sub-region in a precise manner.

2. If we consider the linguistic nationality as a region, then a sub-region refers to a small area within a region.

3. Due to various factors, the people of sub- region feel that they possess a distinct identity.

4. A movement for the separation of the sub-region from a state or for the redressal of grievances in the sub-region is known as sub-regionalism.

1. Rayalaseema in Andhra Pradesh
2. Vidarbha in Maharashtra.

5. Explain the present position of woman in political sphere?

Ans. Present position of woman in political sphere:

1. Woman have voting rights and the right to contest positions to any political office in India.

2. But very few women hold top-ranking political positions.

3. Their representation had never exceeded 8 percent in the Lok Sabha. The number of women in state legislatures also has been very low.

4. Political parties do not nominate women candidates in adequate numbers.

5. However, the situation is slowly changing. Now one-third seats are reserved for the women in the rural and urban local bodies.

6. How is dowry an evil practice?

Ans. 1. The practice of giving and taking dowry has become a menace in India.

2. Dowry means the money, goods and property demanded from bride’s side
as a condition for marriage by the groom’s side.

3. The prevalence of dowry evil is more among the relatively well-off families, middle classes, educated and urban sections.

4. It is a major problem in ordinary families.

5. Parents of brides sometimes have to sell their lands and properties or to resort to illegal earnings to meet the demands of dowry.

6. It is not easy to satisfy greed for wealth, especially when it comes easily.

7. Women are harassed and tortured for bringing more and more money or property from the parent’s side.

7. What are the rights of a Child?

Ans. Rights of a Child:-
India is a signatory to the ‘convention on the rights of the child’. Thus India is obliged to protect the rights of children. Some of them are:-

1. The right to Survival:-
It includes the right to life, health, nutrition and adequate standards of living.

2. The right to Protection:-
It includes freedom from all forms of exploitation, abuse, inhuman or degrading treatment and neglect;

3. The right to Development:-
It includes the right to education, support for early childhood development and care, social security and the right to leisure, recreation and cultural activities.

4. The right to Participation:-
It includes respect for the views of child; freedom of expression access to appropriate information and freedom of thought, conscience and religion.

8. What are the six freedoms guaranteed under Right to freedom?

Ans. The Right to freedom guarantees six types of freedoms. They relate to

1. Speech and expression,
2. Peacefully assembly,
3. Forming associations and unions,
4. Free movement throughout the country,
5. Residence and settlement in any part of the country, and
6. Practice of any profession, occupation, trade and business.

9. Give the meaning of corruption?

Ans. Corruption:-

1. Corruption has become a serious problem in India.

2. These days we often hear of ‘scams’.

3. Scam means a scandal involving making of money through wrong schemes or illegal means or cheating others or swindling public funds.

4. Awareness about corruption in high places in now growing among the people. Institutional arrangements such as Lok Ayukta and Lok Pal may help to check corruption to some extent.

5. Prevention of Corruption Act, 1988. must be enforced.

10. What measures are needed to ensure regional sentiments and struggles that do not lead to the National disintegration?

Ans. Some of the following measures are needed to ensure that regional sentiments and struggles do not lead to national disintegration.
1. Recognition of the autonomy of the linguistic nationalities.
2. Recognition of the right of a nationality to secede or live together.
3. Measures to reduce the unequal development of various regions.
4. Promotion of amity and understanding between the peoples of different regions.
5. Participation of people in public affairs.

11. The Majority of Children who leave school without completing primary education are girls. why?                           

Ans. 1. In our culture a girl is not valued as much as a boy and many women in our social institutions do not want a girl child.
2. Because of poverty the drop outs are many particularly in scheduled castes and scheduled tribes.
3. The girls are put to domestic work, care of siblings, work in the houses of others, child marriages etc. are the causes for the majority of girls leaving school without completing primary education.

12. What are the measures to be taken for eradication of illiteracy in our country?

Ans. 1. In 1988 National literacy mission was set up to impart functional literacy to adult illiterates.
2. Total literacy campaign was launched in 400 districts.
3. The state governments undertook such literacy campaigns like:
a. Each one teach one
b. Akshara Jyoti
c. Adult education, night school campaigns etc.,
4. Some voluntary organizations came forward to eradicate illiteracy in rural
5. Departments of Adult Education were setup and funds were provided to them.

III. Fill in the blanks:-

1. National Literacy Mission was set up in the year 1988.

2. The Andhra state was created in the year 1953.

3. The year of Dowry Prohibition Act 1961.

4. What is the minimum age of marriage for girls? – 18.

5. Under what article of the constitution is the employment of children in hazardous work prohibited? – Article 24.

6. In which article of the constitution is the right of life laid down? – Article No. 21

7. What is the writ that provides a remedy for wrongful detention? – Habeas Corpus.

8. The first state created on linguistic basis was Andhra Pradesh.

9. The national policy for children introduced in 1974.

10. Rayalaseema is example for sub-regionalism.

11. The Percentage of scheduled caste persons in the total population is 18%.

12. Dowry is a Social evil.

13. The female literacy rate in India in 1991 is 39%.

14. Right of religion is a fundamental right.

15. The literacy rate among ST’s is 30%.SC’s is s37%

16. Protecting the rights from son’s of soil is an integral part of regionalism.

17. Mahatma Gandhi called untouchability as a sin.

18. Women are assigned a sub-ordinate position in the family.

19. A Scam means a scandal involving making of money through wrong way.

20. The government document “Education for all” was adopted in the year 1990.

21. Article 30 stipulates that the minorities shall have the right to establish and administer educational institutions for their choice.

22. Article 29 provides that the minorities have the right to safeguard own culture and language.

23. Andhra Pradesh came into existence on 1956, November 1st.

24. Prevention of corruption Act was made in 1988.

25. States are reorganized on the basis of Languages.

26. The right of freedom guarantees 6 types of freedom.

27. Protection of civil right act was 1955.

28. The state which has lowest female literacy is Bihar (33.57%)

29. States are re-organized on the basis of Languages.

30. “Education for all” Government document reaffirms the country’s commitment to universalizing primary education by the year 2000.…d-world-problems/