What is soil?

 The top most layer of the earth is top soil (or) Soil.

What is Humus?

 The dead animals, fallen leaves, seeds and barks of trees decompose and become a part of the soil. This is called humus.

What is water environment?

 Ground water, rainfall, moisture and snow are form of our water environment.

What is water shed?

 The rainwater that falls on higher areas like hillocks is channelised towards the neighbouring low lying areas and stored is called water shed.

What happens if groundwater levels decrease?

If ground water levels decrease, the concentration of flouride present underground increases.

Explain the term ‘Mulching’?

 Mulching is ploughing back leaves, cattle and agricultural wastes into the land.

What are the affects of excess fluoride in drinking water?

Excess fluoride in drinking water is harmful as it causes skeletal degradation and deformalities .

What should be done to bring down the percentage of fluoride in ground wagter? 

If the ground water is recharged with rain water the percentage of fluoride in it will come down.

What is forest ? 

A forest is a place with thick foliage, big trees a variety of birds and animals.

What are the products we obtain from forest? 

The products we obtain from fokest are timber, firewood, honey, gum, fruits and herbs.

How are the trees in a forest generally healthy?

1.  The trees in a forest are generally healthy because a pests on a tree are eaten away by a worm or pest living on a near by tree.

2. This keeps the forest alive and robust.

Which are called ‘carbon Sinks’?

 Grasslands are called Carbon sinks as they absorbs Carbon dioxide.

Which are converted into ‘Concrete jungles’?

Villages, Cities, towns, forests are converted into concrete jungles.

 Which are called ‘lungs’ of our Urban areas?

 Parks are lungs of our urban areas.

 Which are the ancient water system?

  Oceans are huge and ancient water system.

Where do sponges and algae live in oceans? 

Sponges and algae live in below a depth of 600mts in oceans.

What Salts are found in Marine water? 

Calcium, potassium and Magnesium are the salts present in Marine water

Where are the oil and natural gas reserves in the sea?

In the rocky layers at the bottom of the sea are oil and natural gas reserves

What is the main content of fish meat? 

Fish meat is a rich source of protein and provide good nourishment.

How many people across the world depend on fishing for their livelihood?

Around 60 lakh people across the world depend on fishing for their livelihood.

What is estuary? 

Estury is the meeting  point of river and sea.  It is also known as mouth of the river.

What are mangroves?

Forest  that grow near sea shores are called managroes.

What are the largest mangrove forests in the world?

Sunderbans in West Bengal are the largest mangrove forests  in the world

What is the main function of mangroves?

Mangroves protect us from the intensity of natural calamities like tsunami.

What are corals?

Corals are the wonderful life forms that grow in marine water at a depth where the sun’s heat and light reach them.

To which kind of organisms do Coral reefs privudae Shelter? 

Ans: Coral reefs provide shelter to small animals such worms, snails, sea fish, sea cucumbers, sea-urchins, octopuses etc.,

Mention the different kinds of soil we find in our state?

 We find many kinds of soil in our state.  The quality and texture of each one is different.  There are alkaline, alluvial and sandy soils.

Explain the nature of loose soil?

1. It is difficult to make it into a limp or clod as it crumbles easily.

  1. This is because there are more sand particles and it has less capacity to retain water.

Write about hare soil?

1. It is easy to make this soil into a lump or clod as it will not crumble easily.

2 It has the capacity to retain more water. When dried up, the land made up of this soil cracks and form furrows or crevies.

What is the importance of soil?

1. We dependent on soil for our survival and development.

  1. It supplies our food and provides for the growth of plants.

Why should we use bio fertilizers?

 To protect the soil’s fertility and to save the life forms which support the growth of  crops including earthworms.

Name some nitrogen fixing bio fertililzers?

Rhizahium, Adospirillium, Azotabacter, Azolla, Theo Bacillus etc.,

Explain the term ‘joint forest management.

Joint forest management is to safe guard the forest by making the people in the neighbourhood as partners in its management.

What is social forestry?

  In the vacant places where we live, we can grow trees.  This type of made forest is called social forestry.

What is agro forestry?

 Growing trees along with agriculture in the farm is called agro forestry.

Name the country where chemical pesticides are not used?


 What organic pesticides should we promote to Use?

 We should promote to use of organic pesticides like neem and garlic.

What is Ex-Situ Protection?

 Protection of species of plants and animals by taking them away from their natural habitat to a place where such habitat is created artificially is called Ex-Situ protection.


What is In-situ protection?

Protection of species of plants and animals in their natural habitat is called In-situ protection.

What is bio technology?

 The science that has been taking long studies to cater the needs of the growing population is termed as bio technology. Bio technology is the combinaton of molecular science, microbiology and the principles of biochemistry.

What is biopiracy?

 Stealthy acquisition of germplasm  of plants and animals available in another places and countries and establishing proprietory rights over them is called biopiracy.

How can the germplasm be used?

 This germplasm can be used in purification of water. Manufacture of Carbon Sinks and in the industries for manufacturing  medicines and fertilizers.

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