How can you say that India is essentially an agricultural country in the world

1. India is essentially an agricultural country.

2. Two thirds of our work force derive their livelihood from agriculture and allied activities. So, Agriculture is the back-bone of Indian economy.

3. Priority has been given to the development of the agricultural sector in the beginning of the Five Year plans.

4. With the development of manufacturing sector and other allied economies in the country, the contribution of agricultural sector to GDP has been declining.

5. The performance of agricultural sector still holds the key role in the improvement of real incomes and living standards of three-fourths of India’s population who live in villages.

6. India occupies an outstanding position in the world in respect of several agricultural products.

7. With the crop growing season all the year round, and with varied soils, different climatic conditions and a large area under irrigation and cultivation, India is in a unique position to grow almost every possible crop.

8. It is the land of producing a variety of cerals, millets, pulses, spices, fruits, vegetables, oil seeds, fibre crops, beverages and other industrial raw material crops.

Describe the importance of agriculture in India

The Importance of agriculture in India:-

1. Agriculture is the predominant occupation of two-thirds of working population for their livelihood.

2. Agriculture is the major source of income for about three-fourth of India’s population who live in villages.

3. Agriculture is the chief source of country’s income. It contributes about 30% of the Gross Domestic Project (GDP)

4. Agriculture provides not only food but also raw materials for manufacturing industries like textiles, sugar, vegetable oil, jute and tobacco.

5. Several agricultural products like tea, coffee, cereals, raw tobacco, spices, cashew vegetable oils, raw cotton, fruits etc are the important items of our export trade.

6. Through these products we are earning foreign exchange significant.

7. Agriculture is not only an important occupation of the people, but also a way of life, culture and custom.

8. Most of the Indian customs and festivals are observed in consonance with agricultural seasons, activities and products.

Explain the important characteristic features of Indian agriculture

Main characteristics of Indian Agriculture:-

1. The Indian agriculture is mostly rainfed. About two-thirds of the total cropped area still depends up on monsoon rains. In the rainfed areas, the agriculture is precarious and less productive.

2. About one-third of the total cropped area is cultivated with irrigation water. In the irrigated areas, the agriculture is productive and prosperous.

3. The average size of land holding is only 1.7 hectares. Small and marginal land holdings are predominant which account for more than three-fourths of the total operational holdings.

4. In view of high population pressure and low man-land ratio, the Indian agriculture is highly intensive, where two or three crops are cultivated in the same piece of agricultural land in an agricultural year.

5. Due to the agro-geographical conditions there are mainly two crop-seasons in India, namely Kharif (June to October) and ‘Rabi’ (November to March). The third crop season known as ‘Zayad’ is also grown after the Rabi in the months of April, May and June where irrigation is abundant.

6. In view of favourable geographic conditions, Indian farmers grow a variety of crops, both food crops and industrial crops.

7. The Indian agriculture is highly traditional, subsistent and food grains oriented and less mechanized.

8. Plantation crops like tea, coffee, rubber, coconut, sugarcane and other cash crops like cotton, tobacco, jute have also had a pride of place in the Indian agriculture. Even though, they occupy relatively a small area, their contribution in the total agricultural income is significant.

9. The modernization of agriculture consists of hybrid farming is also significant.

10. The average productivity of crops in India is very low.

What are the problems of Indian agriculture

The Problems of Indian agriculture:-

1. Indian agriculture has been facing many problems, due to which the agricultural productivity in India is very low in comparison with that of many countries in the world.

2. The most important problems of agriculture is as follows:-
1. Uncertainty of rainfall,
2. Soil erosion
3. Fragmentation of land holdings,
4. Jhumming or shifting type of cultivation.
5. Illiterate farming community
6. Improper manuring and low application of fertilisers,
7. Non-Mechanised and out-dated farm implements,
8. Inadequate irrigation facilities,
9. Lack of capital and insufficient credit facilities and
10. Lack of proper marketing system.

What is Green Revolution and explain the objectives

Green revolution:-

‘Green Revolution’ refers to the specific plant improvements notably to the development of high yielding varieties for the increase of crop production.


1. To bring a broad transformation of agricultural sector in the country in order to overcome the problems of food shortage, hunger, under-nutrition and malnutrition.

2. This new agricultural strategy will help in effective utilization of agricultural resources in the country.

3. It also aimed to increase the standard of living and eliminate agricultural poverty in the rural areas.
4. It is also to eliminate to agriculture as a bottleneck to overall economic development of the nation.

5. Subsequently, this new agricultural strategy became popular all over the country and the ‘Green Revolution’ was successful and has achieved substantial agricultural progress in the country.

6. What are the achievements made in Indian agriculture through Green Revolution?

Achievements in Agricultural Sector:-

The Green Revolution has brought about radical changes in the agricultural scenario of the country and made an impressive agricultural progress in different dimensions. The details of furnished here under.

1. The net sown area has increased from 118 million hectares in 1950-51 to 142 million hectares in 1990-91, showing a net increase of 24 million hectares.

2. The double cropped area has increased from 13 million hectares in 1950-51 to 43 million hectares in 1990-91, showing a net increase of 30 million hectares.

3. Tremendous progress has been made in the irrigation sector which is evident from the fact that the irrigated area has increased from 22 million hectors in 1950-51 to 62 million hectors showing a net increased of 40 million hectors.

4. The per hectare yield levels in Paddy, Wheat, Jowar, Bajra and Maize have increased very significantly and as a result outstanding progress has been made in the food grain production which increased from 50 million tonnes in 1950-51 to 180 million tonnes in 1990-91 showing a spectacular increase of 130 million tonnes.

5. The area under High-Yielding Varieties has increased from 1.9 million hectares in 1966-67 to 65 million hectares in 1990-91, showing a significant increase of 63.1 million hectares.

6. The use of fertilizers has increased from 0.5 kg/hec in 1952 to 71 kg/hec. In 1990-91, showing a net increase of 70.5 kg/hec.

Name the four different agricultural development agricultural development programmes

The following are the agricultural development programmes undertaken by government of India during the period of Five Year Plans.

1. Community Development Programme.
2. Small Farmer’s Development Agency
3. Marginal Farmers and Agricultural Labourers Development Agency,
4. Intensive Agricultural Development Programme,
5. High-Yielding Variety Programme and
6. Multiple Cropping Programmes
7. Intensive Agricultural Area Programme.

What are the Crop seasons

The agro-geographical conditions are very much suitable for the cultivation of crops throughout the year. As a result there are mainly two crop seasons in India, namely, ‘Kharif’ (June to October) and ‘Rabi’ (November to March). The third crop season known as ‘Zayad’ is also grown after the Rabi in the months of April, May and June where irrigation is abundant.

What are the food grain crops

Food grain crop include
1. Cereals:- Paddy, Wheat, Oats and Barley.

2. Pulses and grams:- Red gram, Black gram, Green gram, Horse gram, Bengal gram.

3. Millets:- Jowar, Bajra, Maize, Ragi.

 Name the important crops of commercial agriculture

1. The commercial crops are also called cash crops and industrial crops.

2. They include fiber crops, cotton, jute etc.

Plantation Crops:- Teak, Coffee, Sugarcane, Rubber.

Oil Crops:- Seasamum, Castor, Ground nut, Sunflower etc.

Narcotics:- Tobacco

10. What are the geographical conditions required for the growth of following crops? Mention the dominant areas of their cultivation?
(i). Paddy ; (ii). Wheat ; (iii). Sugar ; (iv). Oil seeds ; (v). Cotton ; (vi). Tobacco.

1. Paddy – Geographical conditions:-

Temperature:- 22 degrees Celsius to 32 degrees Celsius

Rainfall:- 150 to 200 cms. In the low rainfall areas, it is an irrigated crop

Soil:- Clayey plains, Alluvial loams

Areas :- Deltas, flood plains, valleys of rivers, coastal plains in West Bengal, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Orissa, Assam, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh.

2. Wheat – geographical conditions:-

Temperature :- 15 degrees Celsius to 20 degrees Celsius cool and moist weather. At the time of maturity, 25 degrees Celsius to 28 degrees Celsius

Rainfall :- 50 to 100 cms.

Soil :- Well drained silt and fertile loam soils.

Areas :- Northern and Central India, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan.

3. Sugarcane – Geographical conditions :-

Temperature :- 25 degrees Celsius to 35 degrees Celsius. High temperature and sufficient water is required throughout the crop period. If the rainfall is less, irrigation becomes essential. The crop cannot withstand frost.

Soil :- Well drained medium loam or rich-clay like loams or lava soils are favourable.

Rainfall :- High Rainfall (100 – 150 cms)

Areas :- Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Haryana, Punjab and Bihar.

4. Oil seeds – Geographical conditions:-

Temperature :- 20 degrees Celsius to 30 degrees Celsius

Rainfall :- Moderate rainfall (50-100 cms)

Soil :- Light Soils.

Areas :- Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Karnataka. Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Orissa, Bihar, Punjab and Haryana.

5. Cotton – Geographical conditions :-

Temperature :- 20 degrees Celsius to 35 degrees Celsius

Rainfall :- 80 cm to 120 cm (Moderate rainfall). It should be well distributed throughout the crop period. Frost is injurious to its growth. Sunny and dry weather is required after flowering stage.

Soil :- Deep and medium black soils.

Areas :- Gujarat, Maharashtra, Punjab, Karnataka, Haryana, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh.

6. Tobacco – Geographical Condition:-

Temperature :- 20 degrees Celsius to 40 degrees Celsius

Rainfall :- 75 cm to 100 cm. Frost is harmful.

Soil :- Well drained sandy loams or sandy clay soils.

Areas :- Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Karnataka, Orissa, Bihar, West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh and Maharashtra.

What are plantation crops? Give requirements of their growth

Plantation crops are tea, coffee, sugarcane, rubber etc.

Tea :-

1. Warm moist tropical climate with an average rainfall over 150 cms. Well distributed all over the year.

2. Temperature below 10 degrees Celsius and dry spells affect the crop adversely.

3. Well drained fertile soils rich in Nitrogen and also sandy loams are suitable.

4. Frost is harmful.

5. Stagnant water near the roots of the plant is also harmful and hence the slopes of the hills are more suitable.

Coffee :-

1. Hot and Humid tropical climate with well distributed 150-200 cms rainfall and 15 degrees Celsius to 30 degrees Celsius temperatures.

2. The plant is sensitive to direct sun and hence protected by the shade of other taller trees.

3. The plant is also sensitive to cold and frost.

4. Well drained forest loamy soils with gentle sloping are ideally suited edaphic and terrain conditions.

Natural rubber :-

1. Hot and Wet climate like that of the equatorial area.

2. The temperature should be more than 25 degrees Celsius and rainfall over 200 cm distributed throughout the year.

3. Deep well drained loamy soils.

What is livestock


1. Livestock consists of cattle and buffaloes, sheep and goats and other animals like pigs, horses, camels etc and poultry forms a part of a livestock.

2. Livestock is a part and parcel and an ally of agriculture.

Explain the significance of livestock in the country’s agricultural economy

1. Livestock plays an important role in our agricultural economy.

2. Since our agricultural holdings are very small and non-mechanised, the animal power is still predominant to carry out all agricultural operations as well as for manuring the fields.

3. Therefore, they are indispensable to our rural agricultural economy, particularly to small and marginal farmers.

4. It is recognized that animal Proteins like milk, meat and eggs are of more biological value than the vegetable proteins.

5. The per-capita consumption of animal proteins in our country is very meager as compared with that of the world average.

6. Hence, it is very essential for us to increase the use of milk, meat and eggs in the menu of our diet.

7. The present rising levels of milk production are not catering to the needs of the growing human population and urbanization in our country.

8. Owing to vegetarian nature of Indians, milk proteins are the only source which should be increased along with food grain production.

9. In India, the large numbers of livestock have become a source of hides and skins which India is able to export to many other countries and through which it becomes a potential earner of foreign exchange.

10. White revolution refers improvement of the quality of the breed through exotic cross breeding, development of fodder supply, control of animal diseases, development of live stock based industries viz., Dairy, Poultry.

11. Live sector currently accounts for over 25% of the gross value of agricultural output India’s vast livestock population offers tremendous potential for meeting domestic demand for milk, egg, meat, wool etc.

12. This sector has also began to be regarded as a source of new employment, especially for marginal and small farmers and landless agricultural labourers by offering subsidiary occupation to supplement their family income.

Why marine fishing is very predominant on West coast

1. Marine fishing means fishing in the waters of the seas.

2. It is significant to note that about three-fourths of marine fish production is obtained from the west coast.

3. It is due to
(i). The broad continental shelf
(ii). The oceanic character of its water
(iii). Greater plankton productivity due to higher presence of phosphate and nitrate contents.

4. The areas are coasts of Kerala, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Gujarat, Goa and Daman & Diu.

What are the sources of inland fisheries? Name the important states for inland fisheries

1. The fresh water fisheries constitute the main stay of inland fisheries which include rivers, irrigation canals, reservoirs, tanks, ponds and fresh water lakes.

2. The estuarine fisheries include estuaries, delta channels, back waters, lagoons and coastal lakes.

3. They are significant in West Bengal, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh and Assam.

Extra Questions:-

Write about the White revolution

1. It refers to the increase of milk production in the country through various developmental programmes.

2. In this connection, the success in the rising the level of milk production is ascribed the Operation Flood Project, the worlds largest integrated Diary Development Programme started by the National Dairy Development Board (NDDB) in 1970.

3. This programme is basically designed to link rural milk producers’ with Urban consumers.

4. After the initiation of “Operation Flood Project”, India’s milk production has increased and now India ranks second in milk production.

Write about Blue revolution

1. The Department of Agriculture and co-operation, Government of India operates a number of schemes for increasing fish production (Blue Revolution) in the country in recent times.

2. These schemes include the development of fresh water aquaculture through Fish Farmer’s Development Agencies (FFDAs).

3. Development of brackish water aquaculture through BFDA’s.

4. A shrimp and fish culture project is being implemented with World Bank assistance for development of shrimp culture in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Orissa and West Bengal.

What is Green Revolution

Green Revolution refers to the development of high yielding varieties for the increase of crop production.

What is White Revolution

White Revolution refers to increase of milk production through various developmental programmes.

What is Blue Revolution

‘Blue Revolution’ refers to increase of fish production.

FFDA stands for:-

Fish Farmer’s Development Agencies


Brackish water Fish Farmer’s Development Agencies.

What does Operation Flood Project refer to

It refers to the rising of the level of milk production.


National Dairy Development Board


Intensive Agricultural Development Programme.


Intensive Agricultural Area Programme.

Fill in the blanks :-

1. The winter crop season is known as Rabi.

2. During South-West monsoon the crop season is known as kharif.

3. The modernization of agriculture refers to hybrid farming.

4. The tribal agriculture is called as jhumming.

5. The new agricultural strategy for the increase of food grain production is referred to Green Revolution.

6. The nature of cropping India is predominantly food grain oriented one.

7. Wheat is largely grown in winter season.

8. The crop which is predominantly grown in deltas and river valleys is rice (paddy).

9. The largest cultivated area is found in paddy cultivation.

10. The crops which are used for inter-culture are pulses.

11. Sugarcane is tropical crop.

12. Jute cultivation is predominant in West Bengal.

13. Tea cultivation requires tropical warm and moist climate.

14. Coffee cultivation requires hot and humid tropical climate.

15. Black soils are favourable for the cultivation of cotton.

16. National rubber cultivation is predominant in Kerala state.

17. Estuarine fisheries are part of inland fisheries.

18. Agriculture is the main stay of economy in India.

19. Operation Flood Project belongs to produce milk.

20. Blue Revolution belongs to fish production.

21. The average size of land folding in India is only 1.7 hectares.

22. The state West Bengal has the first rank in the production of Jute.

23. The state Andhra Pradesh has the first rank in the production of Tobacco.

24. The largest rice growing state other than Andhra Pradesh is West Bengal.

25. GDP stands for Gross Domestic Product.

26. The average size of land holding is only 1.7 hectares.

27. Jowar is the poor mans diet.

28. Livestock is a part and parcel and an ally of agriculture.

29. White Revolution refers to the increase of milk in the country.

30. After the initiation of Operation Flood Project India’s milk production has increased.

31. The Rabi season extends from November to March.

32. HYVP means High Yielding Variety Programme.

33. Blue Revolution refers to the increase of fish production in the country.

34. Green Revolution started from the year 1965-1966.

35. The Most important Karif Crop is

Match the following:-

a. Operation Flood Project [e] 1. Fish

b. Green Revolution [d] 2. Prawn

c. Blue Revolution [a] 3. Shifting cultivation

d. Shrimp Culture [b] 4. Food grains

e. Jhumming [c] 5. Milk



Explain the significance of mineral resource base of a country

1. India is fortunate in having a great variety of mineral resources with some of the basic and valuable minerals.

2. India can rightly hope to be more or less industrially self-contained in future.

3. The country is well endowed with iron ore and manganese which are the principle raw materials of the iron or steel industry.

4. It possesses large reserves of bauxite from which alluminium is produced.

5. It holds a virtual monopoly of mica, a mineral indispensable in electrical and electronic industries.

6. The vast stretches and large reserves of coal fields in the country – the principle source of energy provide resources for the rapid industrialisation of the country.

7. Today more than a hundred minerals are produced and go into manufacturing process in the country.

What are the fuel minerals

1. The minerals which are burnt as fuel to generate power are known as “fuel minerals”.
Example :-
Petroleum, Coal, Natural gas and Lignite. These are used in generation of steam power and thermal power and energy fuel.

Name the four atomic minerals

Atomic Minerals :-

1. The minerals which can be processed to generate atomic energy are called “Atomic minerals”.
Example :- Uranium, Thorium, Monazite and Radium.

2. Monazite is a compound of Thorium, Uranium, Cerium and Lanthanium.

Classify the minerals on the basis of their availability in the country

1. There are two ways of classification of minerals on the basis of their utility and availability.

2. According to utility, minerals found in India can be broadly categorized into four groups, namely
a. metallic minerals,
b. non-metallic minerals,
c. fuel minerals and
d. atomic minerals

India’s mineral resources can also be classified into three groups on the basis of their availability.

1. Minerals in which India has exportable surplus are iron ore, mica, manganese, chromite, titanium, bauxite, granite, silica, steatite, monazite, beryllium, corrundum, kyanite, sillimanite and thorium.

2. Minerals in which India may be considered self-sufficient are coal, felsfar, alluminium, slate, marble, cement raw materials, industrial clays, limestone, dolomite, gypsum, barytes, antimony and some of precious and semi-precious stones.

3. Minerals in which India is deficit in production and depends mostly on foreign imports are petroleum, copper, lead, zinc, tin, silver, nickel, graphite, tungston, mercury, sulphur, potash, rock phosphate etc.

Describe the salient features about the distribution of important minerals.

Distribution of Mineral Resources :-

1. The mineral resources of India are unevenly distributed.

2. The vast alluvial plains of North India are almost devoid of economic minerals.

3. In contrast, the peninsular block contains most of the reserves of metallic, non-metallic and fuel minerals.

4. Almost all the coal fields are located in the valleys of the Damodar, son, Mahanadi and Godavari.

5. Major share of petroleum reserves lies in a few sedimentary basins of Gujarat, Assam and in the continental shelf of the Maharashtra coast.

6. Most of the deposits of iron ore are located in the Archaean rocks of Bihar, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu.

7. The large concentration of other important mineral deposits are :-
1. Chromite in Orissa and Karnataka.
2. Bauxite in Bihar, Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat
3. Manganese in Madhya Pradesh, Orissa and Maharashtra.
4. Copper, lead and zinc in Bihar and Rajasthan,
5. Mica in Bihar, Andhra Pradesh and Rajasthan and
6. Gold in Karnataka.

What are the important mineral belts identified in the country

The important mineral belts which are clearly demarcated in India are :-

1. The Damodar Valley Area of the Bihar – Orissa – West Bengal belt :-

This belt is rich in coal, iron, manganese, mica, dolomite, china-clay, chromite, phosphate, bauxite, copper and limestone.

2. Central India or Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra belt :-

This belt abunds in manganese, coal, limestone, bauxite, iron, copper and chromite.

3. The Deccan part of Andhra Pradesh :-

This area has good resources of second grade coal, mica, barytes, asbestos, dolomite, limestone, graphite and iron ore.

4. Karnataka area :-

It abunds in gold, iron ore, chromite, bauxite, manganese, asbestos, quartz and silica.

5. Tamil Nadu area :-

This area possesses deposits of coal, limestone, gypsum, china-clay, bauxite and iron ore.

6. Kerala Belt :-

This belt possesses various minerals such as bauxite, clay minerals, iron ore, graphite, mica, gold and limestone.

7. Central Rajasthan – Gujarat belt :-

This belt is potentially very rich in copper, lead, zinc, silver, Uranium, gold, dolomite, manganese, steatite, marble, asbestos, gypsum, and precious stones.

8. The Himalayan Region :-

This region is known for the occurrence of copper, lead, zinc, antimony, nickel, cobalt, tungston, gold, silver and other precious stones.

Name the important coal fields in India

Coal occurs in the Lower Gondwana and Teritary rock formations. The important coal fields are

1. In Bihar – Jharia, Chandrapura, Bokaro, Giridhi
2. In West Bengal – Ranigunj and Asansal
3. In Madhya Pradesh – Singrauli and Korba
4. In Andhra Pradesh – Singareni
5. In Orissa – Talcher and Rampur
6. In Maharashtra – Chanda coal field

8. Write about the distribution production and consumption of (i). Iron ore, (ii). Manganese, (iii). Mica, (iv). Gold, (v). Petroleum, (vi). Copper.

1. Iron ore :-

Distribution :-

Singhbhum (Bihar); Mayurbhanj, Koenjhar and Sundarghar (Orissa); Raipur Durg and Bastar (Madhya Pradesh); Bellary, Chitradurg and Chikmanglur (Karnataka); North Goa (Goa); Salem (Tamil Nadu), Khammam and Rayalaseema districts (Andhra Pradesh) and Ratnagiri and Chanda districts (Maharashtra).

Production :-

1. About one fourth of world’s total reserves found in India.
2. The quality of the Indian ores is very high.
3. The important iron ores of India are hematite and magnetite.
4. Within the country, about 96% of iron ore reserves are found in Orissa, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Goa and Karnataka.

Consumption :-

1. Used in making steel machinery, tools and weapons and also used for the many other purposes in constructions and transport.
2. Japan is the most important buyer of Indian iron ore.

2. Manganese :-

Distribution :-

Koenjhar (Orissa), Chitradurg (Karnataka), Jabalpur (Madhya Pradesh), Nagpur (Maharashtra), Singhbhum (Bihar), Panchamahal (Gujarat), Udaipur (Rajasthan) and Srikakulam (Andhra Pradesh)

Production :-

1. India is the third largest producer in the world.
2. About one-fourth of Indian Manganese production is being exported and earns good foreign exchange.

Consumption :-

Used in the production of steel and the alloys, in the manufacture of black enamel in the chemical industries or the manufacturing of bleaching powder and in electrical, glass, leather and metal industries and photography.

3. Mica :-

Distribution :-

Gaya (Bihar), Nellore (Andhra Pradesh), Udaipur (Rajasthan).

Production :-

1. India is the largest producer in the world and exports on large scale.
2. In the country, Bihar and Andhra Pradesh are the largest producers.

Consumption :-

It is used in electrical and electronic industries.

4. Gold :-

Distribution :-

Kolar (Karnataka), Anantapur (Andhra Pradesh), Nilgiris (Tamil Nadu), Kozikode (Kerala), Singhbhum (Bihar).
Production :-

1. India has very meager gold reserves.
2. Karnataka is the largest producer in the country.

Consumption :-

1. A large quantity is used for the manufacture of Jewellary, dentistry and decorative articles.
2. It also used in monetary system.

5. Petroleum :-

Distribution :-

Digboi (Assam), Bombay High (Maharashtra), Anuleshwar (Gujarat), Krishna and Godavari river basins (Andhra Pradesh)

Production :-

We are deficit in this minerals. Petroleum and petroleum products occupied major share in India’s imports.

Consumption :-

1. It is used in transportation.
2. It is used for the production of various petro-chemical products.

6. Copper :-

Distribution :-

Singhbhum (Bihar), Jaipur (Rajasthan), Guntur (Andhra Pradesh), Balaghat (Madhya Pradesh), South Arcot (Tamil Nadu), Hassan (Karnataka), Almora district (Uttar Pradesh).

Production :-

1. India is critically deficient in copper production and depend largely on foreign supplies.
2. Bihar is the largest producer in the country.

Consumption :-

1. It is used in electrical industries.
2. It is used for making brass, coins and utensils.

In which minerals India is a surplus

1. India has a variety of mineral resources and in some of them, it has surplus production.

2. India has exportable surplus in iron ore, manganese, chromite, titanium, Bauxite, Granite, Silica, Steatite Monazite, Beryllium, Corrundum, Kyanite, Sillimanite and Thorium.

Classify the minerals according to utility

According to utility minerals are classified into four groups. They are
1. Metallic minerals
2. Non-metallic minerals
3. Fuel minerals and
4. Atomic minerals.

What is meant by conservation of energy resources

1. Energy resources like petroleum and natural gas are finite, fixed and exhaustiable.

2. They are not renewable.

3. So, there is an urgent need to receive greater efficiency and accountability in saving energy resources.

4. This is called conservation of energy.

What are the metallic minerals

Iron, Manganese, Bauxite, copper etc are metallic minerals.

What are the non-metallic minerals

Mica, Limestone, Gypsum, Asbestos etc are non-metallic minerals.

14. What are the atomic minerals? Why are they called like that?

Uranium, Thorium and Monazite are called atomic minerals. Through these minerals atomic energy is generated. So, these minerals are known as atomic minerals.

Fill in the blanks :-

1. Most of the iron ore deposits are located in the Archean rocks.

2. Mica an indispensable mineral in electrical and electronic industry.

3. The maximum energy producing mineral in India is coal.

4. The important iron ores of India are Hemetite and Magnitite.

5. The important states for gypsum production is Rajasthan.

6. Diamonds are richly available in Madhya Pradesh state.

7. India is deficit in copper production.

8. The important lignite coal field is Neyveli.

9. Thorium and Uranium are richly found in Rajasthan and Kerala sand deposits.

10. Lead and Zinc occur in association among Crystalline and Schist rocks.

11. Alluminium is produced from Bauxite.

12. The place of India as the producer of manganese in the world is third place.

13. Rajasthan state has the monopoly in the production of gypsum.

14. One of the important mineral belts in India is Himalayan region.

15. In Andhra Pradesh iron ore deposits are in the districts of Kurnool and Khammam.

16. The state that is famous for mining of gold is Karnataka.

17. Jharia coal fields are located in the state of Bihar.

18. Singareni mines are famous for coal.

19. The state producing maximum cement is Tamil nadu.

20. The atomic mineral is Uranium.

21. Neyveli in Tamil Nadu is famous for the production of Lignite.

22. Digboi in Assam is famous for Petroleum deposits.

23. Mica is required for electrical and electronic equipment.

24. Nellore district is leading in the production of mica in Andhra Pradesh.

25. Japan is the importer of India’s iron ore.

26. The mineral Tungston is used in paints and electric bulb filaments.

27. Gypsum is the important raw material of cement.

28. The mineral Graphite is used in Lubricants, pencils and paints.

29. Uranium is used in the generation of nuclear power.

30. Expand IREDA – Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency.

Match the following :-

1. Jharia [e] a. Gold

2. Mayurbhanj [d] b. Mica

3. Nellore [b] c. Petroleum

4. Bombay High [c] d. Iron

5. Kolar [a] e. Coal