What do you understand by the word ‘Monsoon
1. Broadly speaking, the climate of India can be described as ‘tropical monsoon type’.
2. The word ‘Monsoon’ has been derived from the Arabic word ‘Mausam’.
3. It conveys the rhythm of seasons and the changes that occur in the direction of winds and in the distribution of rainfall and temperature with the change of seasons.
Describe the mechanism of monsoon in India
Mechanism of Monsoon in India:-
1. Broadly speaking, the climate of India can be described as ‘tropical monsoon type’.
2. Originally, the word ‘monsoon’ is referred to the blowing of winds which reverse seasonally between the Indian sub-continent and the Indian ocean.
3. They blow for six months i.e. from mid-March to mid-September from a South-westerly direction and another six months i.e. from mid-September to mid-March from North-easterly direction.
4. These monsoon winds are caused due to several factors like the Thermal contrast.
5. According to an intense low pressure system develops on the land surface during the summer which draws air from a relatively high pressure system on the adjoining seas leading to the in-blowing of South-west monsoons.
6. During the winter, the pressure conditions in the area are reversed and so are the winds.
This time low pressure system develops in the seas which draws air from the land mass particularly blowing from the north-east and therefore, form the north-east monsoons.
7. On the basis of the monsoon variations and the advance and the retreat of the Sun’s vertical rays across the country, the Indian weather in an year can be divided into four seasons. They are
a. The Cold weather season
b. The Hot weather season
c. The South-west monsoon season
d. The Retreating monsoon season.
What are the factors responsible for regional differences in climatic condition in India
1. India is marked with a broad unity of monsoon type of climate.
2. But many striking regional variations expressed in the pattern of temperature, rainfall, winds, humidity and pressure belts.
3. The large size of the country and its varied relief play a crucial role in determining the differences in climatic characteristics in different parts of India.
4. The coastal lands are characterized by low durinal range of temperatures, cool sea breeze, moist and moderate climate with a high degree of uniformity.
5. On the other hand, the interior parts of the country are known for their extreme weather conditions which can be described as continental type of climate.
6. All these differences in the climatic characteristics are determined by location of the place, its altitude and the distance from the sea or the mountain.
Distinguish between Maritime climate and continental climate with example.
The costal lands are characterized by low durinal range of temperatures because of cool sea breeze, moist and moderate climate with a high degree of uniformity. This type of climate is often described as Maritime climate.
Examples:- Chennai – 38.5 degrees Celsius
The interior parts of the country are known for their extreme weather conditions which can be described as continental type of climate.
Examples:- Delhi 41.2 degree Celsius
How many seasons are recognized in India? What are they
The Indian weather in an year can be divided into four seasons
1. The Cold Weather Season [ Mid December to Mid March ]
2. The Hot Weather Season [ Mid March to Mid June]
3. The South-West Monsoon Season [ Mid June to Mid September ]
4. The Retreating Monsoon Season [ Mid September to Mid December ]
What is meant by ‘monsoon burst or break
Monsoon burst or break:-
1. During the hot weather period, the beginning of South-West monsoon, the low pressure system develops over North-West plains.
2. This low pressure belt attracts moist equatorial air drawn from the Indian ocean.
3. These winds of ocean origin, extending into the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea move northwards and caught up in the air circulation and approach suddenly with violent thunders and lightnings followed by sudden rains.
4. This sudden onset of rain is known as the ‘monsoon burst or break’.
7. Name the coldest and hottest parts as well as the rainiest and dries parts in India and give reasons for such extremities.
a) Coldest Parts:-
1. The temperatures are relatively low during the winter months in all over the country particularly in the northern India.
In Northern India, particularly in the hill stations, the night temperature go below the freezing point under the influence of cold waves.
b) Hottest parts:-
The mean maximum temperature touches 40 degrees Celsius in many places of the country except coastal areas.
Examples:- Delhi – 41.2 degrees Celsius, Chennai – 38.5 degrees Celsius
Delhi is away from the Sea and Chennai is on the coast which gets cool sea breeze.
c) Rainiest Parts:-
There are three areas which gets high rainfalls.
1. The west coast which includes the Malabar coast, the Konkan Coast and the coastal part of the Karnataka in the Western Ghat section.
2. The Sub-Himalayan areas of north-eastern India which consists of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Meghalaya, Manipur, Nagaland, Sikkim and part of West Bengal and
3. The islands in the Bay of Bengal.
All these parts are on the windward side of south-west monsoon.
d) Driest parts:-
1. The rainfall sharply declines from the Bengal and Orissa coasts to towards the West and North-West
2. In the South, the declining trend of rainfall is towards the interior of the Deccan Plateau from both West and East coasts.
Examples:- Rajasthan, Deccan Plateau
1. The reason is by the time the South-West monsoon reaches westwards from Bengal coast, the winds have a little moisture.
2. Coastal areas receives more rainfall due to the moderate climate.
3. Deccan Plateau which is away from the sea i.e., in the continental areas, registered significant seasonal change and variations between maximum and minimum temperature.
8. Briefly explain the distributional pattern of temperature in India.
In the Winter Season:-
1. Generally, the temperatures are relatively low during the winter months in all over the country particularly in the northern India.
2. During the winter season, the mean daily maximum temperature varies from 28 degrees Celsius in the Peninsula to 19 degrees Celsius in the North-West and 16 degrees in North-East.
3. But the mean daily minimum temperature during winter shows a high variation ranging from 20 degrees Celsius to 24 degrees Celsius in the Peninsula to 5 degrees Celsius and less than this in the north-west and north-east areas of the Country.
4. Trivendurm in the South has the highest mean minimum temperature of 22.2 degrees Celsius while Shillong in the north has the lowest of 3.8 degrees Celsius.
In the Summer Season:-
1. Relatively high temperatures are recorded during summer season.
2. During this season, the mean maximum temperature touches 40 degrees Celsius in many places of the country but it exceeds 40 degrees Celsius in northern and north-western India.
3. The average day temperature in Delhi recorded as 41.2 degrees Celsius in May whereas Chennai in the South registered 3.8 degrees Celsius.
4. During Summer Season, the mean minimum temperature does not go below 20 degrees Celsius.
5. In the coastal areas it seems to be moderate throughout the year with little variations between minimum and maximum temperatures as well as in between the seasons.
Give a brief account on major problems of rainfall in India
How can you say that the Indian Agriculture is referred to as gamble in the Monsoon?
Problems of Rainfall:-
1. The rains in the country which are characterized with uncertainity, irregularity, high variability and unevenness in the distribution lead to impose great impediments to agricultural development.
2. Thus, the Indian agriculture is referred to as a gamble in the monsoons.
3. The extreme amounts of rainfall that is very high and very low cause to create hazardous situations of floods and droughts respectively.
1. Drought as a condition when the rainfall is less than 75% of the normal and severe drought when the rainfall is less than 50% of the normal.
2. Drought is causing because inadequacy of rainfall, and the resultant low soil moisture.
3. In India 72 drought prone districts are there which spread over 13 states.
4. The frequency of droughts is high in south-western India and Central India.
Problems of floods:-
1. Floods occur because of heavy and continuous rainfall.
2. They occur in low lying areas and river valleys.
3. The two states of Assom and West Bengal are affected by floods in
4. Other areas having heavy rainfall also experience floods such as some coastal areas of the rivers Godavari, Krishna and Mahanadi.
Describe the distributional pattern of annual rainfall in India
Rainfall in India varies from region to region and season to season. The regional variations in the distribution of rainfall are as follows.
1. Areas of heavy rainfall:-
Heavy rainfall of more than 200 cms occurs in three areas. They are
1. The west coast which includes Malabar coast, the Konkan coast and the coastal part of Karnataka in the western ghat section.
2. The Sub-Himalayan areas of north-eastern India which consists of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Meghalaya, Manipur, Nagaland, Sikkim and the part of West Bengal and
3. The islands of Bay of Bengal
2. Areas of Moderate rainfall:-
Moderately high rainfall varies from 100 cms to 200 cms is registered in the Western Sub-Himalayan areas Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and hilly areas of Uttar Pradesh, the eastern Gangetic plains of Uttar Pradesh and West Benal, both plains and plateau areas of Bihar, the Orissa coast, eastern and western Madhya Pradesh.
3. Areas of low rainfall:-
1. The rainfall over the parts of Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Saurashtra and Kutch areas of Gujarat, Central part of Maharashtra and Rayalaseema region of Andhra Pradesh is below 70 cms.
2. The rainfall below 30 cms is found in western Rajasthan.
The distribution of annual rainfall in India thus reveals two significant trends.
1. The rainfall sharply declines from the Bengal and Orissa coasts to towards the west and the north-west and
2. In the south, the declining trend of rainfall is towards the interior of the Deccan Plateau from both West and East coasts.
What do you understand by drought and severe drought
5. The Indian Meteorological Department defined drought as a condition when the rainfall is less than 75% of the normal and severe drought when the rainfall is less than 50% of the normal.
6. Due to erratic nature of the monsoons, droughts occur very frequently every year in some or the other part of the country.
7. In India there are 72 drought prone districts spread over 13 states.
8. Droughts occur due to inadequacy of rainfall and deficiency of soil moisture with long spells of dry weather and high temperature.
9. To reduce the problem of drought catastrophy, the Government of India has launched a programe called Drought Prone Area Programme (DPAP) which includes the schemes of irrigations, soil conservation, afforestation etc.
12. What are the two important methods of climatic classification?
The classification of climates to identify different types and sub-types is based on several procedures as attempted by two great scholars namely Koppen and ThornthWaite.
1. Koppen’s method is based on the monthly values of temperature and precipitation.
2. According to Thornthwaite’s methods the areas having water surplus throughout the year can be recognized as humid climate.
3. In contrast, the areas having water deficit in all the months of the year can be identified as arid climate
4. On the basis of this method, India is divided into six climatic regions, namely
1. Perihumid region
2. Humid region
3. Moist sub-humid region
4. Dry sub-humid region
5. Semi-arid region
6. Arid region
5. The Perihumid climatic region is found along the west coast of Goa and in the North-eastern India.
6. The humid climatic region prevails all along the adjoining parts of north-east India.
7. The moist sub-humid climate prevails along the western ghats, in Orissa and West Bengal.
8. The dry sub-humid climate is found in the Ganga valley and north-eastern parts of Central India.
9. The Semi-arid climate spreads over peninsular interior, western Madhya Pradesh, western Uttar Pradesh, Haryana and Punjab.
10. The arid type of climate prevails over Saushtra-Kutch region and Rajasthan.
Name the factors that influence Indian weather
The Indian weather is an outcome of the interplay of several factors like
1. The surface distribution of pressure and winds.
2. Upper air circulation and the inflow of different air masses and jet streams and
3. Inflow of western disturbances and tropical depressions.
What are the factors that influence the climatic condition in India
The large size of the country and its varied relief play a crucial role in determining the differences in climatic characteristics in different parts of India.
What is meant by retreating monsoon
The south-west begins to retreat from the Northern India yielding place to the North-east monsoon from mid September to mid December. This is called retreating monsoon.
What is DPAP? Why is it launched
DPAP means ‘Draught Prone Area Programme’. It is launched to reduce the problem of draught catastrophy. The government of India launched this programme. It includes the schemes on irrigation, soil conservation, afforestation etc.
Where are highest and lowest temperatures recorded in India and when
The highest temperature of 50 degrees Celsius was recorded in June in the Arid Zone of Rajasthan. The lowest temperature recorded in Dras near Kargil is -40 degrees Celsius in December.
There are regional variations in the distribution of rainfall. Mention any two examples in support of this statement
1.The Malabar, the Konkan and The Karnataka coastal region’s in the west
having a rainfall of more than 200 Cms.
2. The Rayalaseema region in A.P., having rainfall below 70 Cms.
3. The Western Rajasthan having rainfall below 30 Cms.
4. Due to support of these statements, there are regional variations in the
distribution of rainfall.
7. Mention the most drought affected states in India?
a. The six drought prone states of India are
2. Andhra Pradesh
5. Madhya Pradesh
b. The drought prone states are 13.
Fill in the blanks:-
1. India receives bulk of its rainfall from South-west monsoon.
2. The retreating monsoon gives abundant rainfall to Tamilnadu (Coromandel) coast.
3. The monsoon burst first takes place in coastal areas in Kerala.
4. Drought Prone district in India are 72.
5. Broadly speaking, the climate of India can be described as Tropical Monsoon.
6. Bramhaputra valley severe flood prone zone.
7. The state Rajasthan has the lowest rainfall.
8. India experienced a very severe famine in the year 1987.
9. There are varid climate conditions in India due to large area and latitudinal differences.
10. The climate in the central region of our country is called continental climate.
11. The South-West monsoon regions extends from Mid June – Mid September.
12. The word Monsoon has been derived from the Arabic word Mausam.
13. The lowest recorded temperature -40degrees Celsius was in month of December at Dras near Kargil.
14. Mawswnram in Khasi hills receives the highest average annual rainfall of 1141 cm.
15. The coastal lands are characterized by Tropical Maritime climate.
16. The interior parts of the country are characterized by Continental type of climate.
17. ITC stands for Inter Tropical Convergence.
18. In India the primary economic activity is agriculture.
19. To reduce the problem of drought the Government of India launched a programme called DPAP.
20. DPAP stands for Drought Prone Area Programme.
21. Koppen’s method is based on monthly values of temperature and precipitation.
22. Thornthwaite’s method is based on water balance concept.
23. Tamilnadu coast receives bulk of its rainfall from the retreating monsoon.
24. The Indian agriculture is referred to as a gamble in the monsoons.
25. NFCP stands for National Food Control Programme.
26. Cherapunji is situated in the State of Meghalaya.
27. The Central Government launched the National Flood Control Programme in the year 1954.
28. The average daily summer temperature of Delhi is 41.2 degrees Celsius.
29. The drought prone states spread over 13 states.
30. Jaisalmeer receives the lowest average rainfall of 12Cm.
31. Arid type of climate we can see in the places Western Rajasthan, Saurasthra.
32. Cyclones normally occur in Retreatins (or) North East Monsoon Season.
Match the following:-
1. Arid type of Climate [d] a. Bramhaputra valley
2. Rain shadow area during S-W monsoon [c] b. Deccan Plateau
3. Semi-arid Climate [e] c. Chennai
4. A place with continental type of climate [b] d. Western Rajasthan
5. Severe flood prone Zone [a] e. Delhi