INDIA – PHYSICAL SETTING
1. THE LOCATIONAL AND SPATIAL SETTING
What is a sub continent? Explain how India can be called a sub continent
A land mass of a continent, which display all the characteristics features of a continent is called a subcontinent. India is called a subcontinent because it displays all the characteristics features of a continent .
The following are the characteristics of India Subcontinent:-
1. Different Diversified physiographic conditions:-
1. India has diversified physiographic conditions with a variety of land forms.
2. They are snowcapped Himalayan mountains on the north, vast Indo- Gangetic
Plains in the middle, number of plateaus in the peninsula as well as the dry
desert sands on the west and the coastal plains of the Indian ocean shores.
2. The area:-
1. India is the 7th largest country in the world in terms of area.
2. India occupies the fairly large area of 3.28 million sq.km on the globe.
1. India has a huge population of about 102 crores.
2. It occupies 2nd place in the world high populated countries.
1. India has a distinctive monsoon type of climate.
2. However, extremes in climate conditions like temperature, rainfall, sunshine, humidity, etc can be observed.
1. A variety of soils like Alluvial, Black, Red and Laterites are distributed.
1. Historically, India has always been a land with people of many religions.
2.They are Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Islam, Christianity and other off-shoots
and different races, tribes, caste groups, languages, customs and habits.
India is also a home of a diversity of cultures under the influence of
different racial and religious groups of which Aryan culture and Dravidian
culture are the distinctive ones.
Thus, Indian shows all the characteristics features of the continent. So, it is
How is the name India derived
1. The name India is derived from the great river the Sindhu or the Indus located in
the north-west part of the country.
2. People living along this river were recognised as ‘Indio’ by the Greeks in ancient
3. Later this began to be reffered to as India by the Britishers.
4. Another name Bharat originated after the great ruler of this land ‘Bharat’ in the
What is the geometrical locations of India and where does India rank in area among the countries of the world
1. Geometrically, the country lies between 8o4’ and 37o 6’ north latitudes and 68o7’ and 97o25’ east longitudes.
2. India has almost thirty degrees of latitudinal extent from north to south and the same amount of longitudinal extent from east to west.
3. The Indian sub-continent occupies a fairly large area of the globe.
4. With a total geographical area of 3.28 million sq.km India is the 7th largest country in the world.
What are the extreme places of our land frontiers
The extreme places of our land frontiers are:-
1. On the north – the snowy lands of the Himalayan mountains system.
2. On the south – The hot and sunny Kanyakumari.
3. On the West – the salty marshes of the Rann of Kutch.
4. On the East – the Virgin forests and the untrampled hills.
Name the countries which share frontiers with India
The countries which share the common land frontiers with India are seven . They are
6. Myanmar and
Name the states which have common frontiers with pakisthan, china, Bangladesh and Myanmar
Gujarat, Rajasthan, Punjab and Jammu and Kashmir have common frontiers with pakisthan.
China has boundary with India in the North states of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttaranchal, Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh.
Bangladesh has common frontiers with the states of West Bengal., Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura and Mizoram.
Myanmar has the frontier with the North eastern states of Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur and Mizoram.
How many coastal states are there in our country? What are they
There are 9 coastal states in our country. They are:-
7. Andhra Pradesh,
8. Orissa and
9. West Bengal.
What is Mac Mahon line
Mac Mahon line:
1. To the east of Bhutan, the Crest of the Great Himalayas acts as the dividing line between India and china . This is known as Mac Mohan line.
2. This line was drawn as an Indian boundary by Britishers.
3. China did not accept this line as a boundary and waged a war with India in 1962.
What are the island groups of India and explain their origin and distribution
India has in all 247 islands of which 223 lie in the Bay of Bengal and the rest in the
Arabian sea and the Gulf of Myanmar. These islands may be divided into three
board groups namely:-
1. The Andaman Nicobar groups
2. The Lakshwadeep groups and
1. The Andaman Nicobar group:-
1. The Andaman and Nicobar island form two major groups in the Bay of Bengal located between 10o and 14o N latitudes.
2. They are of volcanic origin formed of tertiary sandstone, Limestone and shell which are highly dissected.
3. Andaman and Nicobar islands extended upto 8249sq,Km are out of which Andaman islands extended upto 6408 Sq,Km and Nicobar islands extended upto 1841 Sq.Km.
4. The great Nicobar is lying closest to the equator.
5. The other important islands in the group are Little Nicobar, Katchall, Camouta, Trinkat, Nancowry, Teressa and Tivanchong.
2. The Lakshwadeep group:-
1. The Lakshwadeep islands in the Arabian Sea are of coral origin surrounded by fringing reefs.
2. The Lakshwadeep islands with a total area of 32 Sq Kms are situated
between 8o and 11o N Latitudes.
1. Further in the South of Lakshwadeep in the Eight degree channel lies the Minicoy island with an area of 4.5 Sq.Kms.
2. The Pamban island locted between India and Srilanka, has a rocky surface.
10. Mention the state where the sunrises first and the state where the sunrises last? Why does it happen so?
1. In Arunachal Pradesh the sun rises first in India.
2. In Gujarat the sun rises last in India.
3. This variation happens because the longitudinal extent of about 30o between
two eastern and western extremities of India.
1. The Indian island closest to the Equator is Great Nicobar.
2. Arunachal Pradesh state gets the earliest sunrise.
3. India is separated from srilanka by Gulf of Myanmar or Palk Strait.
4. The smallest state in area is Goa.
5. The border country sharing the longest boundary with Indian is China.
6. Mac-mohan line is the boundary line of India and china.
7. The state stands on three seas is Tamilnadu.
8. Tibet is called the roof of the world.
9. If the time is 10.00AM in Green which 3.30PM will be the time in India.
10. Andhra Pradesh has the coast line of 972Kms.
11. Lakshwadeep is in the Arabian sea.
12. The state that Rajasthan is the largest term in the geographical area.
13. The country closest to lakswadeep is Maldives.
14. India is in Northern and Eastern hemisphere
15. The area of India is 3.28 million sq.Kms.
16. India has a coastal line of about 7516.6kms.
17. The tropic of Cancer runs half through the country.
18. The name Indian is derived from the great river Indus or sindhu.
19. The Himalayas Kingdom is Nepal.
20 The nearest neighbpour country across ocean water is srilanka.
21 At the present Indian is a union of 28 states.
22. The 8o Channel lies in Minicoy island bas an area of 4.5 Sq.Km.
23. All the islands in the Arabian sea are of coral in origin.
24. From the north to south, Indian covers a distance of 3214Km.
25. From East to West India covers a distance of 2933Km.
26. Largest state in Indian union in area is Rajasthan.
27. The state Gujarat has the longest coast line.
28. 82o30’E longitude serves as the Indian standard time.
29. India has in all 247 islands.
30. India has a total land frontier of 15200kms
31. The state that have been shared with the boundary of Pakistan are Gujarat, Rajasthan, Punjab, Jammu & Kashmir.
32. Capital city of Uttar Pradesh is Lucknow.
33. The difference between Greenwich time and Indian Standard Time is 5 ½ Hours (or) 5 Hours 30 Minutes.
34. Simla is the capital of Himachal Pradesh.
35. Greenwich is near to London.
Match the Following:-
1. The salty marshes in the [ c ] a. Maldives.
western part of India.
2. The southern most tip of [ e ] b. Northern Hemisphere.
The Indian mainland.
3. The country closest to [ a ] c.Rann of Kutch.
4. India is located in [ b ] d. Tibet
5. The roof of the world [ d ] e. Cape comorin.