Bachelor of Science




The task of reviewing literature involres the identification, selection of critical analysis and reporting of existing information on the problem chosen for the study.

Clam and Crough Stephen,(1999) had stated that review of literature helps to identify what is already known that in turn help in developing a broad comcepts into which the research problem will titin.  Main goal is the develop sound database that will contribute to future knowledge in development of nursing theory, education, practive and rescarch.

Pourselami Osati – Asbtiani f(2002) Conducted a study on Attitudes of female adolescent about dysmenorrhrea and menstrual hygiene in Tehran Suburbs.  In this descriptive study, 250 students were selected at Random Using a Cluster Random Sanpliny method.  The data were collected by applying a 44 item questionnaire.   The result showed that 77% of subjects claimed that they had adequate Knowledge of dysmenorrhoea but only 30% of them practiced personal hygrenie, such as taking both and ased hygianic matereail.  About 33% of these subjects avoided any physical activity or even mild esccerise during menstrual period.   Over 64% of the girls reported taking palliative medicine for their menstrual pairs without consulting a doctor, 15 % of subjects stated that dysmenorrhoea had interfered with there daily life activities and caused them to be absent from school.


A Dasgupta, M sarkar (2008) Conducted a study on menstrual hygenic  among 160 ado lescent girls In that 108 (67.5%) girls were aware about menstruation prior to attainment of menarehe.  Mother was the first informant regarding menstruation in the case of 60 (37.5%) girls.  One hundred  and thirty eight (86.25%)girls believed it as a physiological process. 78(48.75%) girls know the use of sanitary pad during menstruation. Regarding practies, only 18(11.25%) girls used both soap and water regarding restrictions practiced, 136(85%) girls practiced different restrictions during menstruation

Abioye – kuteyi EA (2000) Conducted a study on menstrual knowledge and practices amongest secondary school grils in the Nigeria.  The menstrual knowlege and practices of 352 randonly selected healthy Niganan school girls were studied.187(53%) had attarned menarche 40% of subjects were deficent in knowledge about  menstrucation.  Although menstrual knowledg was higher in post-menarcheal girls, 10% of these were totally ignorant about menses and 84% were not psychologically prepared for the first menses. The result shows that more adolescent girls (55%) were aware of menstruation before its initiation compared with baseline (35%). The practice of using ready made pads increased significanthy from 5% to 25% and reuse of cloth declined form 85% to 57%


A.K. Dongre, P.R. Deshmukh and B.S. Crarg(1998) Conducted & study on effect of community – based health education interventies on management of menstruel hygreni among rural indian adolescerst girls.  The result revealed   that there is a significant charges in the awarness and behavour of rural adolescent girls adolescent girls regarding managements of this monstrual hygrerie, and 66.3% used insanitary materil as menstrual absorbent.


Pourselams, Osati – Abstiani F (2001) Conducted a Study to asses the Knowledge, attitude, and behivcouir of adolescent girls about dysmenorrhea and menstral hygreni.  The samples of the study included 250 volunteer girl student selected at random from 20 high school is suburban district of the city of Tebran, using a cluster random sampling method.  The result indicate a need for development of a comprehensive school health education programme with strong family planning and puberly education components.  In addition at the commernity level, the mothers of young girls should be educated with appropriate, sufficent puberty by grenc and be empowere with necessary skills to communicated and transfer the obtained information to theis children

  1. Drakshayani Devi, P. Venkata Ramaiah (1994) Condueted a study on rural adolescent girls, which revealed the majonity of the girsl were having correct Knowledge about menstruction. Regarding the practices only 10 girls were using boiled and dried cloth as menstrual absorbent.  Through almost all 64 garls received adrise regarding menstrual hygrenie from different sources, some of their were practices on hygienic.  This shows that the mother of this girls were lacking of right knowledge and the same thing transforred to this offspring before bringing any change is menstrual practices they should be educated about the facts of menstruation and its physiological inpications


Elissa Koff, Jill Ricrdan and Karden sheinglod (1981) Conducted a study on preparation and prjor knowledge of intral menstrual expences.  The question waire was administered into 97 College aged women.  Most of the girls are knowledgable prjor to initail menstrual expeneries.


Elisabeth. H. Quist (1996) Condueted a study  on minstrual issues in adolescent with physical and developmental disabilities revealed that their is need for given information on hygienic issues, menstrual irregularities due to specific clinical cirumstaxes and treatment dilemmas associated with use of hormonal medication.

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